Migration of aluminum from food contact materials to food—a health risk for consumers? Part I of III: exposure to aluminum, release of aluminum, tolerable weekly intake (TWI), toxicological effects of aluminum, study design, and methods
© The Author(s) 2017
Received: 30 December 2016
Accepted: 25 March 2017
Published: 12 April 2017
In spite of the prevalence of aluminum in nature, no organism has been found to date which requires this element for its biological functions. The possible health risks to human beings resulting from uptake of aluminum include detrimental effects to the hemopoietic system, the nervous system and bones. Aluminum is used in many fields and occurs in numerous foodstuffs. Food contact materials containing aluminum represent an anthropogenic source of dietary aluminum.
As a result of their frequent use in private households a study was undertaken to detect migration of this metal to foodstuffs from drink containers, coffee pots, grill pans, and camping cookware made of aluminum.
An estimate of the health risk to consumers is calculated, based on the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) specified by the European Food Safety Authority of 1 mg/kg body weight for all groups of people. In some instances the TWI is significantly exceeded, dependent upon the food contact material and the food itself.
KeywordsAluminum Exposure Migration limit Tolerable weekly intake
Aluminum—external and dietary contact
Examples of external contact
Examples of dietary contact
Construction materials, including alloys (e.g., vehicle construction, aerospace, suitcases, facades, tent construction)
Packaging and containers (beverage and food cans, coffee pots, outdoor cutlery and dishes, coffee capsules, household aluminum foil)
Electrotechnology, including alloys (e.g., electrical conductors)
Nanoparticles in sunscreens
Fuel for solid-fuel rockets (up to 30% Al) and pyrotechnics
Pigments for paints (e.g., “silver” bronze paints)
Toothpaste (e.g., AlF3: caries prophylaxis)
Metal polish (Al2O3: paste, suspension in MeOH or H2O)
Pharmaceuticals (e.g., heartburn medicines—pH-regulation; vaccine adjuvants)
Vaccine adjuvant—(increases the immune reaction)
Organic syntheses (e.g., LiAlH4: reducing agent)
Cosmetics (e.g., deodorants–antitranspirants)
Jewelry and ornaments
Food additives (e.g., as colorants or stabilizers)
Total human exposure to aluminum is for the most part the result of uptake from foodstuffs and food additives as well as migration from food contact materials .
Aluminum in foodstuffs
Aluminum occurs naturally in drinking water and in unprocessed foods [12, 15, 17–20]. This natural proportion is also referred to as the “primary content,” and represents the unavoidable aluminum content in foods . Aluminum occurs in foods of both plant and animal origin. The aluminum in plants reflects the content in the soil and in the water resulting from carryover. Certain plants take up more aluminum than others. Examples of plants that preferentially take up aluminum are tea bushes, leafy vegetables, and certain subtropical fruits  as well as spice plants . In particular, plants that grow in acidic soil accumulate larger amounts of aluminum. The naturally occurring aluminum concentration in foodstuffs of animal origin is an indication of the aluminum content of the animal feed and the capability of the organs and tissues to accumulate aluminum [14, 21]. Aluminum may find its way into processed foods through food additives as well as through migration from food contact materials that contain aluminum .
Concentration range (aluminum in mg/kg foodstuff)
Most unprocessed foods
Bread, cake, pastries, baking mixes, flour, vegetables: mushrooms, spinach, radishes, chard, lettuce
Animal products: milk products, sausage, offal, seafoods
Cocoa and cocoa products
It is shown in Table 2 that animal products such as milk products, sausage, or seafood as well as vegetables and baked goods exhibit concentrations of aluminum between 5.00 and 10.00 mg/kg and foodstuffs such as coffee, tea, spices, and herbs are found to have concentrations >10 mg/kg. Concentrations of aluminum in numerous foodstuffs have been determined in the Hessian State Laboratory in previous years and were published in part in the year 2011 .
Aluminum in foodstuffs (mg/kg or mg/L).
Modified from Stahl 
Loaf-shaped yeast fruit cakes
Fine pastries in aluminum trays
Salt pretzels and similar savory biscuits
Beer and mixed drinks containing beer, draught beer
Fruit juice and fruit juice drinks
Wine and fruit wine
Mineral water, spring water and table water
Ready-cooked meals in aluminum trays
As shown in Table 3, the values determined from Table 2 are confirmed by these results. Meat and other animal products such as milk products contain lower concentrations of aluminum than e.g., pine nuts, cocoa powder, chocolate, or bread, including baking mixes.
Aluminum in or resulting from food additives
Food additives containing or consisting of aluminum, according to the Austrian Federal Ministry of Health 
Maximal concentration (mg/L) or (mg/kg)
Quantum satis (The maximum amount is not listed as such. The substances are, however, used according to accepted manufacturing practices, only in amounts that are required to achieve the desired effect and under the condition that the consumer is not misled)
Only external coating of sugar confectionery for the decoration of cakes and pastries
200 (expressed as aluminum)
Only candied, crystallized or glacé fruit and vegetablesb; 520–523 may be added individually or in combination
30 (expressed as aluminum)
Only egg whitec
Sodium aluminum phosphate acidic
1000d (expressed as aluminum)
Only scones and sponge waresd
Sodium aluminum silicate
15,000 mg/kg in the preparation
In fat soluble vitamin preparations
20 mg/kg carry over in cheese
Only for salt intended for surface treatment of ripened cheese, food category 01.7.2e
Potassium aluminum silicate
90% relative to the pigment
In E 171 titanium dioxide and E 172 iron oxides and hydroxides
Calcium aluminum silicatef
Substrate for colorants
Starch aluminum octenyl succinate
35,000 mg/kg in final food
In food supplements as defined in Directive 2002/46/EC due to its use in vitamin preparations for encapsulation purposes only
Aluminum from food contact materials
Summary of food contact materials made of aluminum.
Source selection from 
Aerosol cans (e.g., canned whipped cream)
Containers for convenience foods
Lids for yogurt containers
Tubes for mustard, mayonnaise
Packaging for candy
Composite materials for beverage cartons and packaged coffee
Aluminum tanks for wine, juices, oil, milk
Meat and sausage hooks
Cooking and kitchen utensils
Cooking utensils (cooking spoons, ladles)
Ice cream makers
Specific release limit (SRL)
In September of 2013, the Council of Europe passed a resolution for metals and alloys that come into contact with foodstuffs . In this resolution, specific release limits (SRL) for metals and alloys, including aluminum, were proposed. As a basic principle, the release of metal should remain ‘As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).’ An SRL specifies, the maximal amount of metal ions (in mg) may be transferred from a defined surface of the contact material to the food (in kg) or food simulant. Known toxicological aspects of the given metals are taken into account. The SRL for the release of aluminum to foodstuffs was specified to be 5.00 mg/kg foodstuff . Data from monitoring programs for foods and food simulants by the food industry as well as from members of the Europe Community show that this value can be adhered to . The SRL is also used by official control authorities. In the studies presented in this paper, consumable liquids were also tested, whereby the SRL for liquids will be presented in the unit mg/L.
Tolerable weekly intake (TWI)
The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) published a provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for aluminum of 7.00 mg/kg body weight (BW) per week. This value was derived from animal experiments studying the toxicology of aluminum in dogs, rats, and mice . According to this, it would be permissible for an adult human weighing 70 kg to take up 490 mg per week and for a child weighing 15 kg an amount of 105 mg per week. More recent animal studies  suggest that damage may occur at lower dosages than 7.0 mg/kg per week so that in 2006 the provisional TWI was consequently reduced to 1.0 mg/kg BW. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) also specified a TWI for aluminum of 1.00 mg/kg BW per week, based on combined findings of various studies and due to accumulation of aluminum in the body. This represents the present criterion recognized by the European Union [26, 27]. Accordingly, an adult weighing 70 kg can consume 70.0 mg aluminum per week for a lifelong period, 15.0 mg for a child weighing 15 kg.
Toxicological effects of aluminum
Uptake of aluminum can result in risks to human health. Aluminum has an effect on numerous biological processes in the body. The exact mechanism of aluminum toxicity is, however, not fully understood. It is considered certain that aluminum is potentially cell- and neurotoxic. . Enzyme activity may be disrupted and mitochondrial function may be impaired. Aluminum may also produce oxidative stress . In particular, three organ systems may be negatively affected by aluminum: the hemopoietic system, the nervous system and bones. It has also been suggested that aluminum may play a role in the occurrence of diseases such as breast cancer and Alzheimer’s dementia . The only direct connections that have been shown between aluminum and disease are for hemodialysis encephalopathy, osteomalacia (softening of the bones), anemia, and aluminosis (pathological changes to the lungs) [22, 28]. Of particular importance are aluminum poisoning in the form of encephalopathy and osteomalacia. These effects may occur in patients with chronic kidney disease who are dependent upon dialysis or ingest phosphate binders containing aluminum for extended periods of time . Dialysis encephalopathy2 has been brought into connection with increased aluminum concentrations in the brain of dialysis patients. In order to adequately remove phosphate from the blood, the dialysis fluid contains an aluminum compound. The aluminum can then apparently accumulate in the body and in the brain. Patients may suffer from speech difficulties and muscle cramps brought on especially by trivalent aluminum ions, personality changes, accelerated dementia, and depressive moods [30, 31]. The skeletal system has also been suggested as a potential target of aluminum toxicity . Long-term uptake of comparatively large amounts of aluminum, e.g., taking antacids3 containing aluminum, may cause an imbalance in the calcium and phosphate household with resultant softening of the bones . Substantial aluminum contamination may result in delayed bone development  and development of anemia. Aluminum-induced anemia is typically macrocytic and hypochromatic,4 often occurring in dialysis patients. The exact cause of this phenomenon remains unknown . Aluminosis, also referred to as “aluminum lung” is an occupational disease of workers exposed to aluminum and aluminum oxide dust and vapors. Of all aluminum-related health risks, aluminosis has been known the longest. . Aluminum compounds accumulate in the lungs and impair the self-cleaning system of the lungs. In addition, they may elicit inflammatory processes that induce irreversible tissue damage to the respiratory system and the lungs, possibly resulting in fibrosis [33, 34]. Due to inadequate and disputable data, the involvement of aluminum in breast cancer and the development of Alzheimer’s disease as mentioned in the discussion can neither be explicitly substantiated or negated. Indications of a relationship between aluminum and breast cancer result from observations that breast tissue of women with tumors to some extent may exhibit higher aluminum concentrations than tissue from healthy women. It should also be noted that the disproportionate incidence of female breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant rises with year of publication, from 30.9% in 1926 to 43–48% in 1947–1967 and to 60.7% in 1994 . Aside from the improved diagnostic methods for cancer of the breast, the use of antitranspirants or deodorants containing aluminum may also play a role. Since these substances are applied very close to the breast tissue, they could be involved in the development of breast cancer . It must be noted, however, that the data related to this are contradictory and as a consequence it is not possible to draw scientifically tenable conclusions regarding antitranspirants or deodorants containing aluminum and breast cancer. As a reaction to this controversial situation, however, aluminum-free antitranspirants have begun to appear in the market. Alzheimer’s disease is an illness characterized by disorders in cognitive areas such as memory and orientation disturbances . Reports have been made of increased aluminum concentrations in certain areas of the brain . As with the role that aluminum may play in the development of breast cancer, the role of aluminum in Alzheimer’s disease remains very controversial. As possible mechanism, the neurotoxic potential of aluminum and the possibility that aluminum bound to transferrin may enter the brain have been suggested. There is no evidence that aluminum may be a singular causative factor for Alzheimer’s disease, but may act as a co-factor that can abet the development of the disease .
Basis for the study
As a result of the importance of dietary aluminum exposure (see “Aluminum in or resulting from food additives” above) and the common use of aluminum food contact materials (see “Aluminum from food contact materials” above), in particular in private households, the migration of aluminum from contact materials to food was examined. This study was deemed necessary because of the incomplete data on migration of aluminum from household and cooking utensils within the framework of consumer protection and to this extent aluminum drinking bottles and aluminum stove-top moka pots (Part II) as well as aluminum grill pans and camping utensils (Part III) were examined for migration of aluminum to food.
To study the migration of aluminum from food contact materials to foodstuffs, various foods and food simulants were examined for their aluminum levels after storage or preparation in food contact materials containing aluminum by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES).
A total of 297 samples including food with and without contact to aluminum based cans, bottles, pans, or pots were analyzed. Water for all measurements was tap water from the local supplier (Wasserversorgungsbetriebe Wiesbaden, Germany) according to the guidelines on testing conditions for articles in contact with foodstuffs from the European Commission . The water was stored in polyethylene (PE) canisters at 8 °C in a cold room for 1 week to insure that the same water was used throughout for testing. The naturally occurring background concentration of aluminum in the tap water was 0.7 µg/L, which was negligible compared to the test results (lowest concentration after migration was 10 µg/L), and was subtracted from all measurements of samples prepared with tap water. Powder samples were shaken with water in order to avoid segregation effects. Lumpy food samples were homogenized by means of a Retsch Grindomix GM 200 knife mill (RETSCH GmbH, Haan, Germany). Homogenized samples were solubilized by microwave-based acidic pressure digestion. Two milliliters of deionized water (18.2 MΩ cm), 3 mL of nitric acid (Merck, 65% Suprapur®), and 2 mL of hydrogen peroxide (Merck, 30% Suprapur®) as oxidizer were added to the samples. A few samples were digested without addition of water. Digestion for two parallel batches each per sample was carried out in an Ultra CLAVE III digestion system (MLS GmbH. Leutkirch, Germany) at 240 °C. The digested samples were diluted to 25 mL with 0.0467 mol/L nitric acid solution.
Sample materials with initial weight, digestion additives and LOQ
Initial weight/initial volume
HNO3, H2O2, H2O
HNO3, H2O2, H2O
ICP-MS 3 mg/L ICP-OES
Tea bag and granulated Teaa (instant lemon-tea drink)
HNO3, H2O2, H2O
Apple juice with mineral water
Meat filled pasta (ravioli)
HNO3, H2O2, H2O
HNO3, H2O2, H2O
HNO3, H2O2, H2O
With regard to the drinking bottles and moka pots please see Part II (Migration of aluminum to food from drinking bottles and moka pots) and for camping articles Part III (Migration of aluminum to food from aluminum bowls and camping utensils).
Results, discussion, conclusions
All results of this study are presented in Part II (Migration of aluminum to food from drinking bottles and moka pots) and for camping articles Part III (Migration of aluminum to food from camping dishes and utensils made of aluminum).
In 1942, however, it was reported that pteridophytes such as ferns and puzzlegrass need aluminum . Thirteen years later a study was published with evidence that aluminum is necessary for the growth of the tea bush .
Gastric acid binding pharmaceuticals.
Microcytic: undersized erythrocytes; hypochrome: erythrocytes are pale (hemoglobin deficiency).
TS, SF, SG, HZ, and HB performed the data calculations, participated in its coordination, and drafted the manuscript, SH, AR, AW, and CH participated in the study design and coordination. BB revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
All co-authors have seen and agree with the contents of the manuscript and there is no financial interest to report. We certify that the submission is original work and is not under review for any other publication.
Availability of data and materials
The datasets supporting the conclusions of this article are included within the article.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Alfrey AC (1984) Aluminum toxicity. Bull N Y Acad Med 60(2):210–212Google Scholar
- Exley C (2003) A biogeochemical cycle for aluminium? J Inorg Biochem 97(1):1–7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Exley C (2013) Human exposure to aluminium. Environ Sci Process Impacts 15(10):1807–1816View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kumar V, Gill KD (2009) Aluminium neurotoxicity: neurobehavioural and oxidative aspects. Arch Toxicol 83(11):965–978View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Linser H (1969) Handbuch der Pflanzenernährung und Düngung. Erster Band Pflanzenernährung. Springer, Berlin, p 390Google Scholar
- Tauböck K (1942) Über die Lebensnotwendigkeit des Aluminiums für Pteridophyten. Bot Arch 43:291Google Scholar
- Chenery EM (1955) A preliminary study of aluminium and the tea bush. Plant Soil 6:174–200View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Darbre PD (2003) Underarm cosmetics and breast cancer. J Appl Toxicol 23(2):89–95View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Darbre PD (2005) Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer. J Inorg Biochem 99(9):1912–1919View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Darbre PD, Bakir A, Iskakova E (2013) Effect of aluminium on migratory and invasive properties of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture. J Inorg Biochem 128:245–249View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kraus T, Schaller KH, Angerer J, Hilgers R-D, Letzel S (2006) Aluminosis—detection of an almost forgotten disease with HRCT. J Occup Med Toxicol 1:4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bratakos SM, Lazou AE, Bratakos MS, Lazos ES (2012) Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece. Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 5:33–44View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- López FF, Cabrera C, Lorenzo ML, López MC (2000) Aluminium levels in spices and aromatic herbs. Sci Total Environ 257(2–3):191–197View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pennington JA (1988) Aluminium content of foods and diets. Food Addit Contam 5(2):161–232View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sato K, Suzuki I, Kubota H, Furusho N, Inoue T, Yasukouchi Y, Akiyama H (2014) Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives. Food Sci Nutr 2:389–397View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stahl T, Taschan H, Brunn H (2011) Aluminium content of selected foods and food products. Environ Sci Eur 23(37):1–11Google Scholar
- Al Zubaidy EAH, Mohammad FS, Bassioni G (2011) Effect of pH, salinity and temperature on aluminum cookware leaching during food preparation. Int J Electrochem Sci 6:6424–6441Google Scholar
- BfR (2007) Keine Alzheimer-Gefahr durch Aluminium aus Bedarfsgegenständen. Aktualisierte gesundheitliche Bewertung Nr. 033/2007 des BfR vom 22. Juli 2007. http://www.bfr.bund.de/cm/343/keine_alzheimer_gefahr_durch_aluminium_aus_bedarfsgegenstaenden.pdf. Accessed 24 Nov 2016
- Ieggli CVS, Bohrer D, do Nascimento PC, de Carvalho LM, Gobo LA (2011) Determination of aluminum, copper and manganese content in chocolate samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using a microemulsion technique. J Food Comp Anal 24:465–468View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nanda BB, Biswal RR, Acharya R, Rao JSB, Pujari PK (2014) Determination of aluminium contents in selected food samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 302:1471–1474View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- EFSA (2008) Annex of the opinion on safety of aluminium from dietary intake. Scientific opinion of the panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and food contact materials (AFC). EFSA J 754:1–34Google Scholar
- Austrian Department of Health (2014) Bundesministerium für Gesundheit (BMG, 2014). Aluminium—toxikologie und gesundheitliche Aspekte körpernaher Anwendungen. Herausgeber, Medieninhaber und Hersteller:Bundesministerium für Gesundheit, Sektion IIRadetzkystraße 2, 1031 Wien, Österreich. ISBN 978-3-902611-79-6Google Scholar
- Council of Europe (2013) Resolution CM/Res (2013)9. Metals and alloys used in food contact materials and articles. A practical guide for manufacturers and regulators prepared by the Committee of Experts on Packaging Materials for Food and Pharmaceutical Products (P-SC-EMB). StrasbourgGoogle Scholar
- JECFA—Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (1989) Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. WHO Food Additives Series 24, pp 113–154Google Scholar
- Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) (2006) Sixty-seventh meeting, Rome, 20–29 June 2006. http://www.who.int/ipcs/food/jecfa/summaries/summary67.pdf. Accessed 20 Sept 2016
- BfR (2012) Aluminiumgehalte in Säuglingsanfangs—und Folgenahrung. Aktualisierte Stellungnahme Nr. 012/2012 des BfR vom 20. April 2012. http://www.bfr.bund.de/cm/343/aluminiumgehalte-in-saeuglingsanfangs-undfolgenahrung.pdf. Accessed 24 Nov 2016
- EFSA (2008) Safety of aluminium from dietary intake. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Food Contact Materials. EFSA J 754:1–4. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/de/efsajournal/doc/754.pdf. Accessed 30 Oct 2014
- Becaria A, Campbell A, Bondy SC (2002) Aluminium is a toxicant. Toxicol Ind Health 18:309–320View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schmidt EHF, Grunow W (1991) Toxikologische Beurteilung von Bedarfsgegenständen aus Aluminium. Bundesgesundheitsblatt 34:557–564Google Scholar
- Hansen H-C (ed) (2013) Bewusstseinsstörungen und Enzephalopathien. Diagnose, Therapie, Prognose. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Schäfer SG, Elsenhans B, Forth W, Schümann K (2004) Metalle. In: Marquardt H, Schäfer S (Hrsg) Lehrbuch der Toxikologie. 2. aktualisierte Auflage. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart, pp 763–820Google Scholar
- Spencer H, Kramer L, Norris C, Osis D (1982) Effect of small doses of aluminium-containing antacids on calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 36:32–40Google Scholar
- De Vuyst P, Dumortier P, Rickaert F, Van de Weyer R, Lenglud C, Yernault JC (1986) Occupational lung fibrosis in an aluminium polisher. Eur J Respir Dis 68:131–140Google Scholar
- Jederlinic PJ, Abraham JL, Churg A, Himmelstein JS, Epler GR, Gaensler EA (1990) Pulmonary fibrosis in aluminum oxide workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 142:1179–1184View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Darbre PD (2001) Underarm cosmetics are a cause of breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 10:389–393View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Förstl H, Bickel H, Kurz A (eds) (1999) Alzheimer Demenz. Grundlagen, Klinik und Therapie. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Exley C, Vickers T (2014) Elevated brain aluminium and early onset Alzheimer’s disease in an individual occupationally exposed to aluminium: a case report. J Med Case Rep 8(1):41View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- European Commission (2009) Guidelines on testing conditions for articles in contact with foodstuffs (with a focus on kitchenware)—a CRL-NRL-FCM Publication, 1st edn 2009. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. JRC Scientific and Technical Report. Von: Simoneau C. LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
- Regulation (EU) No 380/2012 of the European Parliament and of the council of 3 May 2012Google Scholar
- Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the council of 16 December 2008 on food additivesGoogle Scholar