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Table 5 Toxic loads (measured as number of released LD50s weighed by half-life, DT50) for honeybees (A. mellifera, oral), earthworms (E. fetida) and birds (S. serinus) of herbicides used in Austria between 2010 and 2019, change between 2010 and 2019 and parameters from linear models testing changes of total toxic loads

From: Reducing overall herbicide use may reduce risks to humans but increase toxic loads to honeybees, earthworms and birds

Species Toxic loads in 2019 [no. LD50 weighed by DT50] Change 2010–19 (%) R2 F-value Regression line P-value  
Honeybees 5.59E+ 13 487 0.70 18.97 Y = 4E + 12*X–8E + 15 0.002
Earthworms 3.67E+ 09 498 0.67 16.43 Y = 3E + 08*X–5E + 11 0.004
Birds 1.86E+ 12 580 0.67 16.36 Y = 1E + 11*X–3E + 14 0.004
  1. P-values in bold if significant, arrows indicate the direction of the change