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Table 4 Assessment of herbicidal AIs sold in Austria from 2010 to 2019 in terms of acute toxicity for honeybees and earthworms (n = 80) and available chronic toxicity for earthworms (n = 50) and birds (n = 61)

From: Reducing overall herbicide use may reduce risks to humans but increase toxic loads to honeybees, earthworms and birds

Species Number of AI in toxicity category
Highly toxic Moderately toxic Non-toxic
No. AIs % No. AIs % No. AIs %
Honeybee LD50 oral [µg bee−1] (n = 80) 0 0.0 46 57.5 34 42.5
Honeybee LD50 contact [µg bee−1] (n = 80) 1 1.25 55 68.8 24 30.0
Earthworm LC50 [mg kgsoil−1] (n = 80) 0 0.0 72 90.0 8 10.0
Bird LD50 [mg kgbw−1] (n = 80) 2 2.5 58 72.5 20 25.0
Earthworm NOEC [mg kgsoil−1] (n = 50) 1 2.0 45 90.0 4 8.00
Bird NOEL [mg kgbw−1 d−1] (n = 61) 4 6.6 54 88.5 3 4.9