To support the solutions-focused approach for the WFD, whilst including potentially more than 145,000 chemicals  and their mixtures, sharing of information on use, properties occurrence and environmental and human exposure of CEC is necessary, to embody a sensible prioritisation of management action. Mandatory monitoring and modelling covering all EU member states and all water bodies with the aim to identify potentially all CECs is not realistic in the short term due to costs and efforts required. Nevertheless, increased ambitions and efforts by member states on monitoring, modelling and (mixture) risk assessment are required. To support this and to ensure knowledge exchange joint European efforts should be encouraged. An organisational structure and a science–policy interface would be required for harmonising and increasing the efficiency of efforts to prevent and reduce chemical contamination of European waters.
The following activities are proposed as the main components of a joint European program for monitoring, modelling, assessment and abatement of chemical contamination of European Waters:
Collaborative efforts for advanced monitoring and data sharing: Modern analytical tools, e.g. Effect-Directed Analyses (EDA), Non-Target Screening (NTS), and arrays of bioassays are increasingly applied to identify chemical compounds with potentially adverse effects on the aquatic environment [9, 10]. Applied methods often require significant resources and knowledge and results may depend on the choice of a specific method for an individual case. This activity provides knowledge-transfer and works for harmonisation of methods, knowledge sharing and science to policy communication to facilitate a maximised use of knowledge and data gained for further risk assessment, prioritisation and assessment of mitigation options.
Modelling fate and distribution of chemicals across the EU: Modelling is a useful complement to monitor for bridging gaps in geographical and temporal coverage of monitoring and identifying potential risks from CECs not included in monitoring programs . This activity provides data and guidance to identify” no, low, or negligible risk” chemicals, to guide monitoring efforts (selection of substances and sampling sites) and to interpolate between results from monitoring which are limited to specific sites and points in time. In addition, modelling can also be used to simulate the outcome of different abatement scenarios to support the selection of the most effective way forward.
In addition to a modelling and monitoring centre, a coordinated activity on assessment, abatement and legal instruments is also proposed. This activity would have as focus:
Assessment of the current status and the needs and options for abatement, using concepts and modelling methods for chemical footprints , linking chemical and ecological status as well as mixture exposure and effects. The results of these efforts would support the implementation of existing legislation by assessing and evaluating potential abatement options including technical and non-technical measures [15, 16].
The proposed actions should build upon the considerable experiences and knowledge gained from existing activities on monitoring, modelling and assessment of chemical status by, e.g. dedicated efforts in member states and by engaging the scientific community.
The work performed under the Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) of the Water Framework Directive (EC 2000) (2000/60/EC) can be taken as a good example of collaboration. The CIS was developed to allow a coherent and harmonious implementation of the Directive with focus on methodological questions on technical and scientific issues. A number of Guidance Documents have been prepared including several on monitoring (https://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/facts_figures/guidance_docs_en.htm). The guidance documents are non-binding and are directed to experts who are directly or indirectly involved in implementing the Directive.
For non-regulated substances, the NORMAN network (https://www.norman-network.net/) provides an existing platform for chemical monitoring, prioritisation and risk assessment—including, e.g. development of methods, knowledge sharing and sharing of information on results of monitoring. For monitoring data, the EU has also has launched the Information Platform for Chemical Monitoring (IPCHEM) where data are made available under four modules: Environmental monitoring, Human Bio-Monitoring, Food and Feed, Products and Indoor Air (https://ipchem.jrc.ec.europa.eu). Other examples of international collaborations such as the Joint Danube Survey (https://www.danubesurvey.org/jds4/) organised by the International Commission for the Danube River (https://www.icpdr.org/main/) and joint monitoring programs organised by the International Commission for protection of the Rhine river (https://www.iksr.org/en/) can also serve as good examples of existing cooperation. The European Environment Agency (EEA) should also have a central role in integrating knowledge and identifying needs for action, as detailed in https://www.eea.europa.eu/highlights/more-action-needed-to-tackle.
There is currently no organisational structure for joint international modelling activities of CEC but a starting point would be to coordinate existing initiatives in the scientific community. This component can potentially be aligned with and become integrated with the current NORMAN network activities.
The previously proposed activities should be linked to the on-going efforts by the European Commission to evaluate and improve existing legislation (https://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/index_en.htm) with increased efforts to establish links between, e.g. the WFD and REACH and other relevant legislation as well as with global agreements such as Stockholm Convention and SAICM. The EU-goal of a non-toxic environment by 2020  requires swift advancements of approaches for safe chemical design, not limited to some few but including all chemicals on the EU market.
A key factor of the solutions-focused approach outlined above is that it can also be introduced and implemented on a local scale. By combining local knowledge on sources of emissions and water quality status, and by engaging local stakeholders in dialogue, rational and realistic solutions to identified problems of chemical contamination of local water bodies can be identified and implemented.