- Open Access
Vertical migration of phytoplankton in coastal waters with different UVR transparency
© Gerbersdorf and Schubert; licensee Springer. 2011
- Received: 3 August 2011
- Accepted: 25 November 2011
- Published: 25 November 2011
The vertical migration of phytoplankton was investigated in natural waters using in situ fluorescence profiling, chlorophyll a concentrations and life counts at two study sites differing in coloured dissolved organic matter (cDOM) concentrations. The data from the corresponding water depths (50-cm intervals down to 10 m) and times (hourly, before dawn to sunset, several days) were related to the highly resolved (2 nm) underwater ultraviolet radiation (UVR)/photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) transparency (290 to 700 nm).
Chlorophyll a maxima of mainly motile dinoflagellates were observed in situ at all days and at both study sites (open marine, brackish waters), independent on prevailing weather conditions or cDOM concentrations. Phytoplankton migration was triggered solely by irradiance in the 400- to 700-nm wavelength range (PAR) at the particular water depth, irrespective of PAR/UVR ratios and surface UVR (290 to 400 nm), after an illumination period of about 40 min. Interestingly, the PAR tolerance levels of the phytoplankton, which have been lower in cDOM-rich waters, matched their light acclimation values determined by parallel PAM measurements.
The response of the phytoplankton to PAR is not a sufficient protection strategy versus increasing UVR levels, which might have wide ecological implications beyond the level of primary producers to impact important ecosystem functions such as the delicate trophic interactions.
- vertical migration
- UV radiation
- underwater light spectrum.
Over the last decades, there have been increasing reports on the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer (reviewed in ). At first, the thinning ozone layer and ozone holes have been mainly associated with polar regions , yet this has been observed in the northern hemisphere too [3–5]. Although the transmission of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is highly variable due to e.g. solar variability or meteorological conditions, climate change is expected to enhance UVR, consisting of UVA (320 to 400 nm) and UVB (290 to 320 nm), in the long run [6, 7]. These reports initiated numerous investigations on possible effects of UV radiation on terrestric and aquatic (marine and freshwater) organisms. In the pelagic zone, an elevated sensitivity of phytoplankton and zooplankton versus UVR could be observed with effects on growth, production, cell biochemistry, ontogeny, genome and mortality (reviewed in [8–10]).
Beyond the UVR effects on single organisms, the ecosystem functions of the aquatic habitats may be threatened considering for instance the delicate balance of trophic interactions . The UVR-induced morphological, biochemical and community changes in phytoplankton decrease the food quality and quantity to the zooplankton with further implications on their food ingestion and digestion [12–14]. To maximise their secondary production, zooplankton is known to correlate their vertical movements to the phytoplankton over certain periods of the day . Differences in the sensitivity to UV radiation in phytoplankton and zooplankton may result in varying non-synchronic pattern of vertical migration which could lead to a de-coupling of the food chain at this early level [16–18]. Provided, the zooplankton follows the movements of the phytoplankton, the grazers may be increasingly exposed to unfavourable conditions such as increased UVR or predators [19, 20]. Altogether, the UV radiation can directly or indirectly influence the phytoplankton-zooplankton interactions with severe cumulative effects up to higher trophic levels in the pelagic foodweb.
Most studies about enhanced UV radiation and phytoplankton concern the effects on single cells as well as on primary production and community changes tested in the laboratory (e.g. [21, 22]). Vertical migration of phytoplankton as a response to PAR or UVR has been mainly examined in laboratory setups/mesocosm (e.g. ). Little is published about vertical movements of phytoplankton in their aquatic habitat under environmentally relevant underwater light conditions in general and UVR transparency in particular. The present paper investigates the in situ response of marine phytoplankton to natural scenarios of different UVR as well as varying UVR/PAR ratios with the hypothesis that UVR triggers the vertical migration of the motile pelagic autotrophs. Over the course of several days, the vertical distribution of chlorophyll as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass was determined by "Backscat" in situ fluorometer. The fluorescence signals were calibrated repeatedly by chlorophyll concentrations determined photometrically in the corresponding water samples, accompanied by life counts of phytoplankton. These data were related to the prevailing irradiances and doses of PAR and UVR, measured in high resolution by a spectroradiometer, within the particular water depths. Since the penetration of PAR and UVR into the water body depends, inter alia, strongly on the concentrations of coloured dissolved organic matter (cDOM; e.g. [24, 25]), investigations were carried out at two coastal study sites that differed significantly in water transparency: the open marine waters (Helgoland, North Sea) as opposed to the near-shore brackish waters (Hiddensee, Baltic Sea).
Calibration of the in situ fluorometer
The underwater light field
With a transmission maximum of 52% around 550 nm (spectrum measured in autumn campaign, October, shown in Figure 2), the water body at Hiddensee could be classified as coastal type 9; extremely strong short wavelength attenuation confirmed the reported high cDOM concentrations (typically up to 4 mg L-1) within this region . Domin et al.  could show that the removal of tripton had little effect on the absorbance characteristics of the water bodies of the southern Baltic Sea; thus proofing the major influence of cDOM in this region. The calculated 1% depth for PAR, UVA and UVB were 6.0, 1.2 and 0.4 m, respectively.
Temperature, salinity and daily doses of UVB, UVA and PAR as well as their ratios
28 Sep 1999
29 Sep 1999
05 Oct 1999
06 Oct 1999
27 Apr 2000
29 Apr 2000
01 May 2000
03 May 2000
Vertical movement of phytoplankton in the water column
Microscopic evaluation revealed that the phytoplankton at the Helgoland Harbour was clearly dominated by motile species in the late spring and consisted mainly of dinoflagellates (between 25% and 46%) and Raphidiophyta ( = Chloromonads, between 54% and 75%). Typical species that partially dominated the phytoplankton were Gyrodinium (small to large < 5 to 200 μm, unarmored dinoflagellate forming large blooms and producing toxins of economic importance) and Fibrocapsa (small, flagellated golden brown cells, capable of producing toxins killing fish and seals). The autumn aspect of the phytoplankton composition in the near-shore region northeast of the island Hiddensee showed a vast majority of dinoflagellates (between 38% and 82%, e.g. Dinophysis, Prorocentrum) confirming the trend that dinoflagellates have been increasing proportionally in coastal waters in recent decades. As well, typical planktonic species of an autumn diatom bloom (e.g. Chaetocerus, Coscinodiscus) have been determined (data not shown).
A maximum of phytoplankton abundance was defined as a minimum of three subsequent layers/depths with Chlorophyll a concentrations exceeding the average Chlorophyll a concentration of the total vertical depth profile by more than 19% for Helgoland and 9% for Hiddensee measurements. The lower threshold for Hiddensee was at first chosen under the assumption that the higher trophic status at this water body  may result in shifts of the phytoplankton communities towards non-mobile species; as could be shown by Wasmund and Uhlig  as well as Sagert et al.  for the German Baltic Coast. In fact, the proportion of motile flagellates has been much higher for Helgoland waters as compared to Hiddensee. By definition, 32 out of a total of 54 profiles measured at Helgoland and 15 out of 31 profiles measured at Hiddensee showed a clear chlorophyll depth maximum which could be used for further evaluation of irradiance dependencies. As compared to Helgoland, relatively fewer profiles determined in Hiddensee offshore waters met the above outlined criteria, which can be explained by the wind conditions. Wind speed peaking at 14 m s-1 has led to intense Langmuir-circulation at the first 2 days of the autumn campaign at the study site Hiddensee, while the wind speed was only less than 5.5 m s-1 on the other days. In contrast, the wind speed was lower than 5.5 m-1 s-1 during all field measurements at the Helgoland harbour.
Which spectral range is important for vertical migration?
Since the surface irradiance differed by magnitudes over the days of the measurements, the accuracy of the data varied significantly too, which made a straightforward correlation of the different spectral ranges with the depth maxima difficult. Moreover, the formation of depth chlorophyll a maximum is likely to be a physiological response to the underwater light regime rather than to surface light conditions, which cannot be sensed by the organisms directly. For these reasons, the underwater light field at the particular depth of the chlorophyll a maximum had to be calculated based on the continuous surface light measurements (summarised in Table 1) and the underwater attenuation spectra (Figure 2).
In contrast to UVR, a clear maximum PAR intensity was maintained by the relocation of the chlorophyll a maximum depth at both study sites (Figures 5C and 6C). Lower PAR intensities at the chlorophyll a maximum depth reflected situations when the maximum PAR irradiance to be tolerated was not even exceeded in sub-surface layers. Interestingly, this maximum PAR irradiance was different at both study sites with values around 185 and 25 μmol photons m-2 s-1 at Helgoland and Hiddensee, respectively.
Solar radiation induced explicit vertical movements of the phytoplankton that were investigated in situ in the open coastal waters of Helgoland (North Sea) and the near-shore waters of Hiddensee (southern Baltic Sea). However, the part of the solar spectrum being most effective in triggering downward migration was calculated to be the PAR but not the UVR (UVA or UVA) wavelengths as hypothesised earlier.
Reaction time and vertical movement in phytoplankton
By integrating the surface photon flux/doses for the single wavelength regions (UVR, PAR) over different times and relating this to the chlorophyll maxima depths, it could be shown that an illumination period of about 45 min has been crucial for the subsequent development of the chlorophyll maxima. Thus, vertical migration of the phytoplankton must have been an immediate response to the increase in solar radiation. Although passive sinking may occur as flagella movement is inhibited by high irradiance of visible light  or UVR , the speed of downward movement in the present study is higher than explained by Stokes law. Moreover, as can be seen in Figure 3, chlorophyll depletion above and below the chlorophyll maximum depth occurs simultaneously and thus supports the concept of active swimming. Swimming speed of chlorophytes and dinoflagellates has been documented to be in the range of 20 to 60 μm s-1 which would correspond to hourly movements over distances of about 7 to 22 cm . At the time of sampling, dinophyta dominated within Helgoland (spring time) and Hiddensee (autumn time) waters; that is a typical phytoplankton composition at the particular times of the year for the open marine waters of Helgoland (e.g. [36, 37]) and for the near-shore waters of Hiddensee (e.g. ). The quick development of chlorophyll a maxima in the present paper suggests that these motile pelagic autotrophs managed even bigger distances in the short time available as to be expected by the laboratory experiments of Richter et al. (2007). Indeed, investigations from the natural environment have documented downward migrations of several metres in phytoplankton over the course of 1 day . The discrepancies between laboratory measurements of swimming speed and field observations of rapidly changing chlorophyll a maxima over several metres are probably due to the fact that the idea of an entire phytoplankton population migrating through the water column oversimplifies the natural conditions. As visualised in Figure 3, a substantial proportion of the chlorophyll remains evenly distributed in the water column; even under calm and sunny conditions that would be preferable for vertical movement. Thus, the chlorophyll a maximum may rather illustrate an ongoing process where organisms below and above the "preferred irradiance" move towards the optimum light conditions; depleting, but not emptying the layers behind. In consequence, the single organism would not need to move over a distance of 1 m in 1 h to induce changes in phytoplankton distribution as observed here.
The PAR range as the trigger for vertical migration
The present study could show that vertical migration of the phytoplankton occurred even under average solar radiation conditions in situations of low wind speed. While the chlorophyll a as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass was almost equally distributed in the early morning and late evening hours, a clear chlorophyll maximum developed around noon. This was reflected in the life counts of phytoplankton in the different water depths over the day, where the highest abundance of motile dinoflagellates coincided with the chlorophyll a maximum. This maximum was not triggered by tidal movements because the shape did not change over the investigated days, whereas the tidal regime shifted approximately 6 h.
Although vertical migration of phytoplankton triggered by light (and others such as gravity, magnetic field, chemical gradients, etc.) is a long-known phenomenon, there are few studies on the effects of the varying underwater light quantity and quality on phytoplankton movement [23, 35, 40]. It could be shown that light quality modulates vertical phytoplankton movement, but the empirical evidence as to which wavelength is responsible, was still lacking. In the present study, the phytoplankton reacted to the PAR rather than to the UVR range in solar radiation as was expected earlier. Since numerous investigations reported detrimental effects of increasing UV radiation on single cells and community composition of phytoplankton and zooplankton [12–14], it seemed logical to presume a UV avoidance mechanism in these organisms. Indeed, some zooplankton species are able to detect and escape UV radiation (e.g. ), which is in contrast to the phytoplankton reactions investigated here in situ. This could be explained by the fact that most of the microalgal photoreceptors are not sensitive in the UVR range  although there is evidence that some receptors are able to absorb in the blue and UVR region (e.g. Euglena gracilis[18, 42]).
Water bodies of different radiation transparency
The sensitivity of phytoplankton to PAR would imply that motile species evolved avoidance mechanisms in addition to acclimation mechanisms against the exposure of high irradiance. Since UVR levels are usually closely linked to PAR values, the phytoplankton reaction to PAR might as well protect against UVR exposure. However, the predicted increase in UVR/PAR ratio due to a continuous decrease in ozone [6, 7] could change this in highly transparent water bodies. In coastal areas characterised by high concentrations of humic substances, an increased UVR/PAR ratio might be balanced by the preferential absorption of the coloured part of the dissolved organic matter (cDOM)  in the UVR range. Thus, one may predict that increasing UV radiation has fewer implications for phytoplankton in cDOM-rich coastal waters. On the other hand, the exposure to harmful photochemical intermediate products can induce stress reactions in phytoplankton. Moreover, phytoplankton from cDOM-rich waters could have an enhanced sensitivity to UVR stress that is attributed to a lack in pre-adaptation [43, 44]. Only in the long run, the phytoplankton from coastal turbid waters will have a chance to adapt to increasing UVR exposure by e.g. shifts in species composition and physiology, with hitherto unknown consequences for its functionality and ecosystem services for the aquatic habitat.
In the present paper, the development and re-distribution of the chlorophyll a maximum in response to solar radiation was not restricted to the water body of higher transparency like in Helgoland/North Sea (70% transmission at 550 nm). The same phenomenon could be observed in the cDOM-rich waters near shore of Hiddensee/southern Baltic Sea (52% transmission at 550 nm). At both study sites, the phytoplankton reacted to similar surface irradiances despite the different water transparencies. However, the maximum PAR intensity to be tolerated by the phytoplankton was strikingly different: about 180 μmol photons m-2 s-1 at Helgoland and 25 μmol photons m-2 s-1 at Hiddensee. For Helgoland, the light saturation of the phytoplankton was additionally determined via the relative electron transport rate and with 219 μmol photons m-2 s-1, the value was very close to the maximum PAR intensity tolerated in situ. The shade acclimation of the Hiddensee phytoplankton is probably linked to the deep and continuous mixing of the water column the last 3 days before the first sampling. With prevailing wind speeds of more than 4 m s-1, a complete mixing of the water column has been observed before in these water bodies . Along with the low PAR transparency, low light acclimation is likely to be the consequence. The data clearly confirmed the different light acclimation of phytoplankton from Helgoland and Hiddensee due to varying concentrations of cDOM in the water. It remains open whether increasing UVR/PAR ratios would affect the phytoplankton differently in the clear or turbid waters.
Implications of phytoplankton sensitivity to PAR under increasing UVR/PAR ratios
Despite the difficulty to precisely predict the future UVR regime in the aquatic environment [6, 46], there are several hints that phytoplankton might be exposed to more elevated UVR levels in the future, in clear and cDOM-rich waters. Thus, by the reaction of phytoplankton to the PAR level alone, detrimental effects on cell or community level by enhanced UV radiation [8–10] may be plausible. Furthermore, the different reactions of zooplankton (to UVR) and phytoplankton (to PAR) to the light climate could lead to a de-coupling of the trophic interactions at the base of the pelagic food chain. Hence, the discovery of the reaction of phytoplankton to PAR is crucial, since this behaviour along with enhanced UVR levels, might have wide ecological implications beyond the level of primary producers. It might affect the delicate balance of trophic relations that represent an important ecosystem function of aquatic habitats with high socio-economic impact.
The reports on a continuous decrease in ozone and a subsequent shift in the UVR/PAR ratio are of concern since UVR effects have been shown to be detrimental to phytoplankton with possible implications on higher trophic levels of the pelagic food chain. The present paper concerns a possible avoidance strategy of phytoplankton: vertical migration in dependence of the incident solar irradiance in natural waters of two study sites (open marine, brackish).
An illumination period of about 40 min was sufficient to induce clear vertical movements of phytoplankton. The development of chlorophyll a maxima could be observed in situ at both study sites, independent of the prevailing concentrations of coloured dissolved organic matter (cDOM). Vertical migration of phytoplankton was triggered by the irradiance in the 400 to 700 nm wavelength range (photosynthetic active radiation, PAR) at the particular water depth. In contrast, there was no clear correlation between the chlorophyll a maximum depth and the intensity of the UVR range, irrespective of the PAR/UVR ratios and the surface UVR conditions. Considering the predicted increase in UV radiation and a consequent shift in the UVR/PAR ratios within the aquatic habitat, this may have consequences for the health and metabolic activity of the primary producers to impact their functionality. The implication of these findings should be pursued by further investigations of UVR effects on the aquatic assemblages with special regards to their ecosystem functionality.
Measurements were performed in the Helgoland Harbour at the end of the south-mole, where the water column had a maximum depth of around 9 m. The wide opening of the harbour and the large tidal amplitudes result in a continuous exchange of the water bodies with the adjacent open sea with no impact from effluents from the nearby island. During the campaign in spring (4 days of measurement in April/May), the weather conditions were favourable for vertical migration (temperature and salinities given in Table 1). Thermal stratification at around 1 m depth (difference in vertical temperature profiles measured at least during two subsequent samplings) evolved on the last 3 days; while fog in the morning and wind in the afternoon prevented stratification only on the first day. This allowed different weather scenarios to be tested with respect to phytoplankton migration.
Measurements took place at the near-shore region northeast of the island Hiddensee (Libben, position 54°36' and 13°11') using a research vessel ("Prof. Fritz Gessner"). During the campaign in autumn (4 days of measurement in September/October), the vertical profiles of temperature (difference < 0.5°C) and salinity (continuously 7.7 practical salinity units (psu) except on the last day with an inflow resulting in 8.0 psu) showed little variations (Table 1), thus indicating a well mixed water column of 5.5 m depth at the sampling station. During the first 2 days, strong northwest winds (up to 14 m s-1) induced Langmuir circulation, while on the third day the upcoming southwest wind was comparatively low (5 m s-1) with the fourth day being almost calm. Clear sky conditions evolved in the afternoons of the days 2 and 4; but in the morning and on the other days dull weather prevailed resulting in an heterogeneous set of weather conditions like in the Helgoland campaign before.
Scalar underwater irradiance was measured with a high-resolution spectroradiometer (SR-9910, Macam Photometrics Ltd. Livingston, Scotland) equipped with a 10-m light guide and a spherical light collector of 0.7 cm diameter. Successive underwater scans at depth intervals between 5 and 50 cm down to a maximum depth of 3 m were done around noon and used to calculate the diffuse spectral attenuation coefficients, Ko (λ) (Smith, 1968). Thereby, each underwater scan took less than 2 min plus 1 min to adjust to the next depth. To determine surface irradiances, the spectroradiometer was connected to a cosine-corrected light collector and the full spectra (250 to 800 nm) was recorded in spectral sampling intervals of 2 nm every 5 min between 4 a.m. and 10 p.m. For the time intervals (< 2 h) when the spectroradiometer was used for underwater scans, the incident irradiance had to be interpolated with the help of a parallel running cosine-corrected PAR sensor (Li193SA, LiCor Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA) measuring surface irradiance continuously. For 2 days of the spring campaign, the spectroradiometer was not available. For these days, all PAR values refer to these LiCor readings, while UVR values were provided by the field station Zingst from ELDONET-readings , calibrated versus the above described spectroradiometer. The distance between the sampling site around Hiddensee and coastal field station Zingst is about 30 km.
All optical components of the spectroradiometer are made from high-grade quartz or Teflon to allow measurements at wavelengths from 250 to 800 nm in 2-nm intervals. Spectral irradiance/doses measurements are presented in quantametric units (micromoles of photons per metre squared per second, PAR)/energetic units (kilojoules per metre squared, UVR), respectively. Calibration of absolute sensitivity and wavelength accuracy were performed at regular intervals against voltage-stabilised deuterium and tungsten standard lamps (Macam SR-990) traceable to the National Physical Laboratory, London, UK.
Surface irradiance and attenuation values within the water column were used to determine the underwater irradiance at the mean depth of the respective chlorophyll maxima. Thereby, the spectral data did not show any signs of irregularities that could be related to a thermocline. The thermocline evolved during the first 3 days at Helgoland long after the chlorophyll peak formation to disappear at each day in the late afternoon. For the analysis of the irradiance dependency of the formation of chlorophyll maxima, the mean value of surface irradiance was calculated for an integration period of 45 min prior to the chlorophyll depth profiling.
Depth profiles of phytoplankton
Vertical distribution of chlorophyll a within the water column was determined fluorometrically in 0.5 m depth intervals by means of a "Backscat" in situ fluorometer (Haardt, Germany) taking five parallel measurements at each depth. These vertical chlorophyll a profiles were recorded on an hourly basis from sunrise (5 a.m.) to sunset (9 p.m.). For calibration, the chlorophyll concentrations were determined photometrical in water samples from the corresponding water depths of the fluorometric profile, at least once a day. For this purpose, 20 to 50 l of water was pumped up from each depth. Parts of these samples were directly investigated for their phytoplankton composition performing life counts under the light microscope in Bogorov counting chambers to distinguish between the main groups and to identify the proportion of motile phytoplankton. More samples were fixed in Lugol solution for subsequent determination in sedimentation chambers using Utermöhl technique while others were fixed in glutaraldehyde to account for picoplankton under the epifluorescence microscope. The main part of the water samples was filtered to concentrate the phytoplankton onto GF92 (GF/F) - filters (Schleicher and Schuell, Dassel, Germany). To extract the pigments from the filters, the residuals on the filter were kept in 5 ml N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF, Sigma, Germany) for 12 h in darkness at 4°C. Chlorophyll concentrations were calculated by the absorbance spectra of the extract at 647 and 663 nm, using the formula and extinction coefficients given in Porra et al. . These chlorophyll concentration data served additionally to rule out potential variations of the data due to non-photochemical quenching in surface layers (see below). TC3D software (Jandel Scientific, San Rafael, CA, USA) was used to calculate the surface grid models of the spatial-temporal chlorophyll distribution by means of Gaussian equations.
Photosynthetic parameters of the phytoplankton were derived in situ in dependence of the surrounding light regime using a submersible pulse-amplitude-modulated chlorophyll fluorometer (Diving-PAM, Walz GmbH, Effeltrich, Germany). Since the Diving-PAM was originally introduced for macrophytes, its application in waters with low chlorophyll content (e.g. Helgoland) would not be suitable. Thus, the instrument was used without fibre optic to get a sufficient signal to noise ratio, even with low phytoplankton densities. This resulted in an undefined penetration depth of the measuring light as well as for the fluorescence signal received, both increasing the raw signal to sufficient values of about 100 arbitrary units for Fs ("steady state fluorescence").
According to , the quantum yield of PSII (Genty factor, efficiency of the photochemical energy conversion) is determined in dark-adapted and light-adapted phytoplankton to calculate the theoretical maximum efficiency (Fv/Fm) and the efficiency at a particular light level (Fv'/Fm'), respectively. These photon utilisation efficiency parameters served to calculate the rETR with the help of the quantum flux density of PAR. The measurements took place in the early morning before sunrise (completed before 5:15 a.m.; thus the algae have been dark-adapted over night). Using the Diving-PAM, the phytoplankton was exposed to a series of seven increasing irradiances between 15 and 700 μmol photons m-2 s-1 (total duration 15 min); the quantum yield of PSII was determined before the start of the illumination series and after each illumination period (duration 2 min each). During day time and clear sky conditions, photon utilisation efficiency parameters determined by the Diving-PAM in surface waters were used to test whether NPQ (summarising all mechanisms diminishing Fm) may explain reductions in the fluorescence signal of the "Backscat" in situ fluorometer [45, 50]. No such NPQ effects have been observed (data not shown).
The investigations presented here were part of the project "UV MAOR" (UV effects on marine organisms) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The authors would like to thank the crew of the research vessel "Fritz Gessner" for supporting our investigations around the waters of Hiddensee. We are also grateful for the provided laboratories at the Institute of Ecology/University Greifswald and at the "Biologische Anstalt Helgoland"/Alfred-Wegener Institute für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Germany.
- Solomon S: Stratospheric ozone depletion: a review of concepts and history. Rev Geophys 1999, 37: 275–316. 10.1029/1999RG900008View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rex M, Salawitch RJ, von der Gathen P, Harris NRP, Chipperfield MP, Naujokat B: Arctic ozone loss and climate change. Geophys Res Lett 2004., 31:Google Scholar
- Bjorn LO, Callaghan TV, Gehrke C, Johanson U, Sonesson M, Gwynn-Jones D: The problem of ozone depletion in northern Europe. Ambio 1998, 27: 275–279.Google Scholar
- Keil M, Jackson DR, Hort MC: The January 2006 low ozone event over the UK. Atmos Chem Phys Discuss 2007, 7: 961–972.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zerefos CS, Balis DS, Bais AF, Gillotay D, Simon PC, Mayer B, Seckmeyer G: Variability of UV-B at four stations in Europe. Geophys Res Lett 1997, 24: 1363–1366. 10.1029/97GL01177View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mc Connell JC, Jin JJ: Stratospheric ozone chemistry. Atmosphere-Ocean 2008, 46: 69–92. 10.3137/ao.460104View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rasch PJ, Tilmes S, Turco RP, Robock A, Oman L, Chen CC, Stenchikov GL, Garcia RR: An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols. Phil Trans Math Phys Eng Sci 2008, 366: 4007–4037. 10.1098/rsta.2008.0131View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Helbling EW, Barbieri ES, Marcoval MA, Goncalves RJ, Villafane VE: Impact of solar ultraviolet radiation on marine phytoplankton of Patagonia, Argentina. Photochem Photobiol 2005, 81: 807–818. 10.1562/2005-03-02-RA-452R.1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Haeder DP, Kumar HD, Smith RC, Worrest RC: Effects of solar UV radiation on aquatic ecosystems and interactions with climate change. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 2007, 6: 267–285. 10.1039/b700020kView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Marinone MC, Marque SM, Suarez DA, Dieguez MDC, Perez P, Rios PDL, Soto D, Zagarese HE: UV radiation as a potential driving force for zooplankton community structure in Patagonian lakes. Photochem Photobiol 2006, 82: 962–971. 10.1562/2005-09-09-RA-680View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Belzile C, Demers S, Ferreyra GA, Schloss I, Nozais C, Lacoste K, Mostajir B, Roy S, Gosselin M, Pelletier E, Gianesella SMF, Vernet M: UV effects on marine planktonic food webs: A synthesis of results from mesocosm studies. Photochem Photobiol 2006, 82: 850–856. 10.1562/2005-09-27-RA-699View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- De Lange HJ, Lurling M: Effects of UV-B irradiated algae on zooplankton grazing. Hydrobiologia 2003, 491: 133–144.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Joint I, Jordan MB: Effect of short-term exposure to UVA and UVB on potential phytoplankton production in UK coastal waters. J Plankton Res 2008, 30: 199–210.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liang Y, Beardall J, Heraud P: Effect of UV radiation on growth, chlorophyll fluorescence and fatty acid composition of Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Chaetoceros muelleri (Bacillariophyceae). Phycologia 2006, 45: 605–615. 10.2216/04-61.1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Reichwaldt ES, Stibor H: The impact of diel vertical migration of Daphnia on phytoplankton dynamics. Oecologia 2005, 146: 50–56. 10.1007/s00442-005-0176-3View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ringelberg J: The photobehaviour of Daphnia spp. as a model to explain diel vertical migration in zooplankton. Biol Rev 1999, 74: 397–423. 10.1017/S0006323199005381View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Haeder D: Ultraviolet radiation and aquatic microbial ecosystems. In Ecosystems, evolution and ultraviolet radiation. Edited by: Cockell C, Blaustein A. New York: Springer; 2001:150–169.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Iseki M, Matsunaga S, Murakami A, Ohno K, Shiga K, Yoshida K, Sugai M, Takahashi T, Hori T, Watanabe M: A blue-light-activated adenylyl cyclase mediates photoavoidance in Euglena gracilis . Nature 2002, 415: 1047–1051. 10.1038/4151047aView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gliwicz MZ: Predation and the evolution of vertical migration in zooplankton. Nature 1986, 320: 746–748. 10.1038/320746a0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stich HB, Lampert W: Predator evasion as an explanation of diurnal vertical migration by zooplankton. Nature 1981, 293: 396–398. 10.1038/293396a0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Barbieri ES, Villafane VE, Helbling EW: Experimental assessment of UV effects on temperate marine phytoplankton when exposed to variable radiation regimes. Limnol Oceanogr 2002, 47: 1648–1655. 10.4319/lo.2002.47.6.1648View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Marcoval MA, Villafane VE, Helbling EW: Interactive effects of ultraviolet radiation and nutrient addition on growth and photosynthesis performance of four species of marine phytoplankton. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 2007, 89: 78–87. 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2007.09.004View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Richter PR, Hader DP, Goncalves RJ, Marcoval MA, Villafane VE, Helbling EW: Vertical migration and motility responses in three marine phytoplankton species exposed to solar radiation. Photochem Photobiol 2007,83(4):810–817. 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2007.00076.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zepp RG, Callaghan TV, Erickson DJ: Interactive effects of ozone depletion and climate change on biogeochemical cycles. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 2003, 2: 51–61. 10.1039/b211154nView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Morris DP, Zagarese H, Williamson CE, Balseiro EG, Hargreaves BR, Modenutti B, Moeller R, Queimalinos C: The attentuation of solar UV radiation in lakes and the role of dissolved organic carbon. Limnol Oceanogr 1995, 40: 1381–1391. 10.4319/lo.19126.96.36.1991View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jerlov NG: Marine Optics. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1976.Google Scholar
- Reinart A, Herlevi A: Diffuse attenuation coefficient in some Estonian and Finnish lakes. Proc Estonian Acad Sci Biol Ecol 1999, 48: 267–283.Google Scholar
- Schubert H, Sagert S, Forster RM: Evaluation of the different levels of variability in the underwater light field of a shallow estuary. Helgoland Marine Research 2001, 55: 12–22. 10.1007/s101520000064View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Domin A, Schubert H, Krause JC, Schiewer U: Modelling of pristine depth limits for macrophyte growth in the southern Baltic Sea. Hydrobiologia 2004, 514: 29–39.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Walsby AE: Numerical integration of phytoplankton photosynthesis through time and depth in a water column. New Phytologist 1997, 136: 189–209. 10.1046/j.1469-8137.1997.00736.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gerbersdorf SU, Meyercordt J, Meyer-Reil LA: Microphytobenthic primary production in the Bodden estuaries, southern Baltic Sea, at two study sites differing in trophic status. Aquat Microb Ecol 2005, 41: 181–198.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wasmund N, Uhlig S: Phytoplankton trends in the Baltic Sea. Ices Journal of Marine Science 2003, 60: 177–186. 10.1016/S1054-3139(02)00280-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sagert S, Rieling T, Eggert A, Schubert H: Development of a phytoplankton indicator system for the ecological assessment of brackish coastal waters (German Baltic Sea coast). Hydobiologia 2008, 611: 91–103. 10.1007/s10750-008-9456-3View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Niell FX: Adaptation to light of organisms that cause red tide - ecophysiological reflection. In Conf on Red Tides as a Natural Phenomenon. Edited by: Fraga FFF. Jul; Corunna, Spain; 1987:55–61.Google Scholar
- Haeder DP: Ecological consequences of photomovement in microorganisms. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 1988, 1: 385–414. 10.1016/1011-1344(88)85001-2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kelly-Gerreyn BA, Anderson TR, Holt JT, Gowen RJ, Proctor R: Phytoplankton community structure at contrasting sites in the Irish Sea: a modelling investigation. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 2004, 59: 363–383. 10.1016/j.ecss.2003.09.008View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hoppenrath M: A revised checklist of planktonic diatoms and dinoflagellates from Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight). Helgoland Marine Research 2004, 58: 243–251. 10.1007/s10152-004-0190-6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wasmund N, Gobel J, Von Bodungen B: 100-years-changes in the phytoplankton community of Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea). J Mar Syst 2008, 73: 300–322. 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2006.09.009View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Haeder DP: Novel method to determine vertical distributions of phytoplankton in marine water columns. Environ Exp Bot 1995, 35: 547–555. 10.1016/0098-8472(95)00021-6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Figueroa FL, Niell FX, Figueiras FG, Villarino ML: Diel migration of phytoplankton and spectral light field in the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain). Mar Biol 1998, 130: 491–499. 10.1007/s002270050269View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rhode SC, Pawlowski M, Tollrian R: The impact of ultraviolet radiation on the vertical distribution of zooplankton of the genus Daphnia. Nature 2001, 412: 69–72. 10.1038/35083567View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galland P, Keiner P, Dornemann D, Senger H, Brodhun B, Hader DP: Pterin-like and Flavin-like fluorescence associated with isolated flagella of Euglena gracilis . Photochem Photobiol 1990, 51: 675–680.Google Scholar
- Kaczmarska I, Clair TA, Ehrman JM, MacDonald SL, Lean D, Day KE: The effect of ultraviolet B on phytoplankton populations in clear and brown temperate Canadian lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 2000, 45: 651–663. 10.4319/lo.2000.45.3.0651View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vernet M: Effects of UV radiation on the physiology and ecology of marine phytoplankton. In The Effects of UV Radiation in the Marine Environment. Edited by: de Mora S, Demers S, Vernet M. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2000:237–278.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schubert H, Forster RM, Schoor A, Ockenfeld K: Horizontale und vertikale Chlorophyllverteilung des Bodstedter Boddens. Rostocker Meeresbiologische Beiträge 1997, 5: 69–83.Google Scholar
- Roy S, Mohovic B, Gianesella SMF, Schloss I, Ferrario M, Demers S: Effects of enhanced UV-B on pigment-based phytoplankton biomass and composition of mesocosm-enclosed natural marine communities from three latitudes. Photochem Photobiol 2006, 82: 909–922. 10.1562/2005-09-03-RA-674View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Haeder D-P, Lebert M, Marangoni R, Colombetti G: ELDONET: European Light Dosimeter Network hardware and software. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 1999, 52: 51–58. 10.1016/S1011-1344(99)00102-5View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Porra RJ, Thompson WA, Kriedemann PE: Determination of accurate extinction coefficients and simultaneaous equations for assaying chlorophylls a and b extracted with four different solvents: verification of the concentration of chlorophyll standards by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta 1989, 975: 384–394. 10.1016/S0005-2728(89)80347-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Genty B, Briantais JM, Baker NR: The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochim Biophys Acta 1989, 990: 87–92. 10.1016/S0304-4165(89)80016-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Krause GH, Vernotte C, Briantais JM: Photoinduced quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in intact chloroplasts and algae. Resolution into two components. Biochim Biophys Acta 1982, 679: 116–124. 10.1016/0005-2728(82)90262-6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.