Skip to main content

Table 1 Water sample identifications (IDs) and description of treatment and sampling locations at Görvälnverket DWTP

From: Removal of oxidative stress and genotoxic activities during drinking water production by ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration

Sample ID Sampling point Treatment/location description
Full-scale treatment process
 RW Incoming raw water Incoming raw water to Görvälnverket from lake Mälaren (Görväln basin) at 4 m or 22 m depth, after micro sieve, ambient pH
 SF After coagulation and sand filtration After coagulation/flocculation, sedimentation (or flotation) and sand filtration, pH ≈ 6.5–6.8
 BAC After BAC filter After the oldest full-scale filter (approx. 13 years, EBCT 5–6 min), Norit® 830 W, pH ≈ 6.5–6.8
 UV After UV After UV disinfection (400 J/m2), pH ≈ 6.5–6.8
 DW After NH2Cl—finished drinking water After the addition of monochloramine (0.2–0.38 mg excess chlorine/L) and lime, pH ≈ 8–8.3
 TAP-1 Tap water location #1 From a faucet at a location approximately 6 km in the distribution network from Görvälnverket
 TAP-2 Tap water location #2 From a faucet at a location approximately 50 km in the distribution network from Görvälnverket
Pilot-scale treatment process A
 O3 After ozone treatment After approximately 20 min of ozonation of sand filtrate water from full-scale, pH ≈ 6.5
 GAC-A After GAC-A Ozonated sand filtrate feed water, after treatment through a Norit® 1240 W GAC filter column, EBCT 20 min, pH ≈ 6.5
Pilot-scale treatment process B
 GAC-B After GAC-B Sand filtrate feed water, no ozonation, after treatment through a Norit® 1240 W GAC filter column, EBCT 20 min, pH ≈ 6.5–6.8