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Table 1 Predominant exposure routes of veterinary medicines in terrestrial key livestock species

From: Critical discussion of the current environmental risk assessment (ERA) of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) in the European Union, considering changes in animal husbandry

Species Slurry application Grazing animals Loss at application/exposure outdoors Direct entry into watera
VMPb IMc Ad VMPb IMc Ad VMPb IMc Ad VMPb IMc Ad
Cattle x x x x x x x   x x x x
Pigs x x x         x  
Horses and ponies x x x x x x      x x
Sheep and goats   x   x x x x x x x xe x
Poultry x x x    x    x   x x
  1. Checkmarks illustrate that the exposure route is considered to be relevant in husbandry systems for this species
  2. aDirect entry into water can be through direct excretion, loss from the fleece/hide, or direct entry of the veterinary medicine
  3. bOriginal VMP guideline Table 1 [22]
  4. cIM: initial model of Montforts [21]
  5. dAuthors’ suggestion for an update
  6. eApplicable only to sheep