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Table 3 Overview of UV filters and most sensitive observed effect levels of existing UV filter coral toxicity studies

From: Toxic effects of UV filters from sunscreens on coral reefs revisited: regulatory aspects for “reef safe” products

UV filtera Species Life stage Test duration (d) Effect level Value (µg L−1) Reference
4MBC Acropora sp. Adult 2 LOEC 37 × 103b [12]
BP3 Stylophora pistillata Larvae 1 EC50 17 [17]
BP4 Pocillopora damicornis Larvae/Adult 14/7 EC50/LOEC  > 1000 [36]
BP4 Seriatopora caliendrum Larvae/Adult 14/7 EC50/LOEC  > 1000 [36]
BEMT Pocillopora damicornis Adult 7 EC50/LOEC  > 1000c [79]
DBT Pocillopora damicornis Adult 7 EC50/LOEC  > 1000 [79]
EHT Stylophora pistillata Adult 35 LOEC  > 177c [28]
TDSA Stylophora pistillata Adult 35 LOEC  > 5030 [28]
DTS Stylophora pistillata Adult 35 LOEC  > 480 [28]
BMDM Stylophora pistillata Adult 35 LOEC 516c [28]
EHMC Seriatopora caliendrum Adult 7 LOEC 1000 [35]
EHS Pocillopora damicornis Adult 7 EC50/LOEC  > 1000 [79]
HMS Pocillopora damicornis Adult 7 EC50/LOEC  > 1000 [79]
MBBT Pocillopora damicornis Adult 7 EC50/LOEC  > 1000c [79]
OCR Stylophora pistillata Adult 35 LOEC 1318c [28]
TiO2 Acropora sp. Adult 2 EC50/LOEC  > 6300 [10]
ZnO Stylophora pistillata Adult 35 LOEC 94 [28]
  1. aRefer to List of abbreviations section and Additional file 1: Table S1 of the supplementary material for full names of abbreviated UV filters
  2. bValue recalculated based on 33 µL L−1 and a specific density of 1.108 g cm−3
  3. cSolvent used; value above known water solubility (WS)
  4. EC50, 50% effect concentration; LOEC, lowest observed effect concentration; n.d., not determined