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Table 2 Overview of UV filters, associated water solubility, environmental classification, ecotoxicological threshold levels and derived PNECmarine water

From: Toxic effects of UV filters from sunscreens on coral reefs revisited: regulatory aspects for “reef safe” products

UV filtera Water solubility (µg L−1)b Environmental GHS classification Freshwaterb Seawater
Most sensitive species (taxonomic group)b Effect level Test duration (d) Value (µg L−1) Assessment factor PNECmarine water (µg L−1)b
4MBC 1.1 × 103 Aquatic acute 1 Aquatic Chronic 1 Daphnia magna (crustacea) NOEC 21 20 500 0.04
BP3 6 × 103 Aquatic Acute 1 Aquatic Chronic 2 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (green algae) EC50/NOEC 3/3 670/180 10,000 0.067
BP4 3 × 108 Not classified Pimephales promelas (fish) NOEC 14 4895 500 9.79
BEMT 4.5 × 10–3 Not classified No hazard identified NOEC Not applicable  ≥ WS Not applicable No hazard identified
DBT  < 0c Not classified No hazard identified NOEC Not applicable  ≥ WS Not applicable No hazard identified
EHT  < 1 Not classified No hazard identified NOEC Not applicable  ≥ WS Not applicable No hazard identified
TDSA  ≥ 6 × 108 Not classified No hazard identified NOEC Not applicable  ≥ 100 × 103 Not applicable No hazard identified
DTS No data No data No data No data No data No data Not applicable No data
BMDM 27 Not classified No hazard identified NOEC Not applicable  ≥ WS Not applicable No hazard identified
EHMC 51 Aquatic Chronic 2 Danio rerio (fish) NOEC 30 30 100 0.3
EHS 500 Not classified No hazard identified NOEC Not applicable  ≥ WS Not applicable No hazard identified
HMS 400 Not classified No hazard identified NOEC Not applicable  ≥ WS Not applicable No hazard identified
MBBT  < 5 × 10–3 Aquatic Chronic 4 No hazard identified NOEC Not applicable  ≥ WS Not applicable No hazard identified
OCR 40 Aquatic Chronic 1 Daphnia magna (crustacea) NOEC 21 2.7 100 0.027
TiO2 100 Not classified No hazard identified NOEC Not applicable  ≥ WS Not applicable No hazard identified
ZnO 2.9 × 103 Aquatic Acute 1
Aquatic Chronic 1 Environment
Ceramium tenuicore (red algae) NOEC 7 7.8 1 6.1 d
  1. aRefer to List of abbreviations section and Additional file 1: Table S1 of the supplementary material for full names of abbreviated UV filters
  2. bAccording to ECHA REACH registration dossiers [20]
  3. cValue retrieved from the ECHA website (< 0 g L−1) does not allow for a more precise value
  4. dPNECmarine water was derived from an Species Sensitivity distribution (SSD) method
  5. EC50, 50% effect concentration; NOEC, no observed effect concentration; PNEC, predicted no effect concentration