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Table 1 Definitions of BE, BG, ME and OE

From: Challenges of the Blue Economy: evidence and research trends

Concept Authors Definitions and related concepts
Blue Economy World Bank [137] The sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, the improvement of livelihoods and jobs, and the health of ocean ecosystems
Costa et al. [29] The concept of rethinking industrial processes and searching for a viable biological solution that reduces contamination
Phelan et al. [95] It has become synonymous with generating wealth from activities related to the oceans while protecting and supporting marine ecosystems
Graziano et al. [48] It arises from the growing worldwide interest in the growth of water-based activities
Schutter and Hicks [113] It seeks to curb biodiversity loss while stimulating economic development, thereby integrating environmental and economic interests
Kathijotes [67] It is the mainstream of national development and can integrate land and sea-based socio-economic sustainable development
Kaczynski [64] It refers to the commercially sustainable development of the oceans
Hoegh-Guldberg et al. [55]; Patil et al. [93]; UNECA [125] It has emerged in the last two decades from various forums, but above all from within the policy and practice of environmental development
Blue growth Caswell et al. [23] Emerging from national and international marine policy, it aims to promote the growth of ocean economies and at the same time holistically manage marine socio-ecological systems
Dalton et al. [33] The creation of economic activity and jobs at sea, while the multiple uses of spaces make efficient use of the available sea surface by combining industries
Boonstra et al. [14] It is relatively new and aims to achieve economic growth based on the exploitation of marine resources while avoiding their degradation, excessive use, and pollution
Burgess et al. [17] It is the most recent term to refer to the most holistic management of complex marine socio-ecological systems. It is a dynamic and complex system that covers all industries and regions
Marine economy Qi and Xiao [102] It is a dynamic and complex system that covers all industries and regions
Wenwen et al. [134] It is a new economic form that emphasizes a new development concept, a new operating mechanism, and a management model
Caban et al. [18] It is particularly exposed to dangers due to the environment of its operations. These risks are the result of deliberate and incidental actions (hydrometeorological, mechanical conditions, etc.)
Bentlage et al. [12] A heterogeneous innovation system with enduring relevance to the spatial and functional development of European regions
Spamer [121] It simultaneously fosters social inclusion, environmental sustainability, strengthening maritime ecosystems, transparent governance, and economic growth and development
Ocean economy UNCTAD [124] A subset and complement of the evolving development paradigm emphasizing greener, more sustainable, and more inclusive economic pathways
Potgieter [99] It is considered a crucial factor for global economic growth and development, offering excellent opportunities, challenges, and risks
Colgan [28] They are marine construction, resource, shipping, and tourism and recreation industries whose establishments are located near ocean shorelines or large lakes