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Table 1 Assessment criteria for analyzing the impact of economic instruments on phosphorus use

From: Economic policy instruments for sustainable phosphorus management: taking into account climate and biodiversity targets

Assessment criterion Explanation
P efficiency Promotion of efficient, needs-based, site- and crop-specific fertilization and P-mobilizing management strategies
Reduction of P fertilization at highly supplied sites
Avoidance of P losses
Enhancement of P efficiency in animal feeding
Regional P surpluses Avoidance of P surpluses at farm and regional level to reduce eutrophication risk
P balances Balancing of imports and exports of P to and from the EU, focusing on the reduction of dependence on P imports
P fertilizer quality Reduction of the contaminant levels of imported P fertilizers, particularly of Cd and U
P circular economy Substitution of fertilizers containing rock phosphate by organic fertilizers and recovered P, in particular promotion of P recycling
Agricultural structures Promotion of organic farming and further agro-ecological production methods
Increased linking of livestock and arable farming
Improvement of the condition of soils, water, biodiversity, climate