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Table 3 After-treatment period: earthworm activity in response to weed control types (WCT: glyphosate-based herbicides GBH, active ingredients AI, or hand weeding as control) and soil organic matter levels (SOM). GLM/analysis of deviance was used for cast numbers and surface activity, LM/ANOVA for cast mass; time period (4 weeks), soil moisture, temperature and electrical conductivity was used as covariates

From: Effects of glyphosate-based herbicides and their active ingredients on earthworms, water infiltration and glyphosate leaching are influenced by soil properties

Factors Mean cast numbers (no. pot−1)    Mean cast mass (g pot−1)    Mean surface activity (toothpick index)   
  Df LR Χ2 Pr (> Χ2) Df F value Pr (> F) Df LR Χ2 Pr (> Χ2)
Weed control type 2 7.558 0.023 2 2.213 0.120 2 11.533 0.003
SOM 1 0.421 0.517 1 0.000 0.996 1 0.667 0.414
Covar. time 1 1.075 0.300 1 0.004 0.952 1 0.221 0.638
Covar. soil moist. (%) 1 11.291 0.001 1 0.000 0.986 1 5.154 0.023
Covar. soil temp. (°C) 1 0.052 0.819 1 0.000 0.998 1 8.417 0.004
Covar. soil cond. (mS m−1) 1 0.054 0.816 1 0.156 0.694 1 0.749 0.387
WCT x SOM 2 0.905 0.636 2 1.042 0.360 2 1.281 0.527
Residuals NA    261    NA   
  z value Pr( >|z|)   t value Pr(> t)   z value Pr( >|z|)
Multiple comparisons of means (Tukey)
AI – control − 2.188 0.073   NA NA   − 2.822 0.013
GBH – control − 2.838 0.013   NA NA   − 3.498 0.001
GBH—AI − 0.688 0.771   NA NA   − 0.693 0.768
  1. Significant treatment effects are indicated in bold. No multiple comparisons were performed for cast mass because of lacking main effects
  2. NA not applicable