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Table 1 Measurements of the fate of ELT infill on three Dutch fields [40]

From: Fate of recycled tyre granulate used on artificial turf

  Rotterdam Amsterdam Hoogeveen
General information
Year of construction 8–2016 2008 2007
Research period Winter 2017–2018
Field age (years) 1 10 11
Maintenance n Poor Well
Leaf-blowing direction Not described Outwards Inwards
Sides with trees 2 3 2
A. Infill compaction (% per year)   2.8 2.7
 Infill recovered from high-use areas (kg/m2)   4.3 31.4
 Infill recovered from low-use area (kg/m2)   3.1 22.9
 Net compaction (kg/m2)   1.2 8.5
B. Infill loss in brushing waste (kg/field/year) 21–140 9–60 0
 Number of brushing events/year 7 1 0
 Amount of collected waste (L) 80 ± 20 240 ± 60 0
 Infill content in brushing waste (%v/v) 7.6 50 n.d
  Density of infill (kg/L) 0.5 n.d 0.6
  65% as suspended mass (kg/field/year) 1.0 n.d 1.1
C. Infill loss to pavement (kg/field/year) 1.2 60 16
 Total paved surface (m2) 1258 310 522
 Time since last brushing (weeks) 14 4 1
 Mean infill (g/m2) 0.8 38 2.2
 Weekly spread (g/m2/week) 0.1 10 2.2
  Leaf blowing (weeks per year)   13  
  Dispersal by other means (weeks per year)   40  
  90% by leaf blowing (kg/field/year) 0.8 44 12
  10% by other means (kg/field/year) 0.3 15 4
D. Infill loss to drainage sinks    
 Number of sinks 8 0 20
 Time since last cleaning (years) 3 10
 Mass flux to sludge (kg/field/year) 1.5 1.7
E. Infill to ditches (kg/field/year)   4.3 6.1
 Distance to ditch (m) No ditch 3 4
 Thickness of sediment layer (m)   0.1 0.05
 Width of ditch (m)   1.5 0.5
 Length of ditch (m)   64 100
 Time since last dredging   3 10
 % infill in sediment   0.26 4.9
F. Infill to grass strip (kg/field/year) 256 269 279
 Infill concentration in sod (0–0.02 depth) g/kg soil 28–70 190–220 250–610
 Infill concentration in soil (0.02–0.05 depth) g/kg soil  < 0.1 130 90–200
  1. Assumptions are italic