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Table 2 Summary of qPCR results for changes in the relative abundance of biomarkers following nZVI–AC injection (day 0)

From: In situ pilot application of nZVI embedded in activated carbon for remediation of chlorinated ethene-contaminated groundwater: effect on microbial communities

Well Time before and after nZVI–AC injection (days)
14/04 − 6 1 6 35 85
 16S rRNA ++ +++ +++ ++ +
 Desulfitobacterium +++ +++ +++ ++ +
 Dehalobacter ++ +++ +++ ++ +−
 Dehalococcoides ND ND ND ND +
 vcrA ND ND ND ND +
 bvcA ND ND ND ND +++
 Dehalogenimonas ++ + +− +− +−
 Gallionella + + + + ++
 Geobacter ++ ++ +++ +++ +
 etnC +++ ++ +++ +++ +
 etnE +++ ++ +++ ++ +−
CMT 1
 16S rRNA + ++ ++ ++ ++
 Desulfitobacterium + ++ +++ +++ +++
 Dehalobacter ++ +++ ++ ++ +++
 Dehalococcoides +++ +++ ++ +++ +++
 vcrA ND ++ ND +++ ND
 bvcA ND +++ ND ND ++
 Dehalogenimonas +++ +++ ++ ++ +++
 Gallionella ++ +++ ++ ++ +++
 Geobacter + +++ ++ + +++
 etnC + + + +− +
 etnE + +− + +− +−
CMT 2
 16S rRNA + + + ++ +
 Desulfitobacterium + + +++ + +++
 Dehalobacter + ++ + + ++
 Dehalococcoides + + +− + +
 vcrA ++ ND ND + ++
 bvcA ND ND ND ND ND
 Dehalogenimonas + ++ + + +
 Gallionella + ++ ++ +++ ++
 Geobacter + + + + +
 etnC +− +− +− +− +−
 etnE + +++ + +v ++
  1. Calculations were based on Cp values, with +++ = high abundance; ++ = medium abundance; + = low abundance; +− = at detection limit; ND = not detected