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Table 1 Important milestones on the path to SD

From: Monitoring sustainable development by means of earth observation data and machine learning: a review

Year Activity Description
1969 UN published the report Man and His Environment or U Thant Report [22] Activities focused on avoiding global environmental degradation. More than 2000 scientists were involved in the development of this report
1972 First UN and UNEP world Conference on the Human–Environment, Stockholm, Sweden Under the slogan Only One Earth, a declaration and action plan for environmental conservation are presented
1975 UNESCO conference on education about the environment, Belgrade, Yugoslavia Sets up a global environment educational framework, a statement known as the Belgrade Charter
1975 International Congress of the Human–Environment, Kyoto, Japan Emphasises the problems as in Stockholm in 1972
1979 The First World Climate Conference, Geneva, Switzerland Focused on the promotion of climate change research and monitoring
1981 The first UN Conference on Least Developed Countries, Paris, France A report with guidelines and strategies for helping the underdeveloped countries in pursue of SDG
1984 Establishment of UN World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) Establishes the cooperation scenario between developed and developing countries and the adoption of global development plans on environmental conservation
1987 WCED report Our Common Future or BR A report with the foundations of SD’s concept
1987 Montreal Protocol Contains research results on adverse impacts on the ozone layer
1990 The Second World Climate Conference, Geneva, Switzerland Presents further developments on the climate change research and monitoring, including the creation of a global Climate Change Monitoring System
1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit or Rio Conference), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil The Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 Action Plan establishes SD principles and a framework for future tasks
1997 Kyoto Climate Change Conference, Kyoto, Japan The Kyoto Protocol agreement between countries to promote CO2 reduction and other greenhouse gas emissions, starting in 2005
2000 UN Millennium declaration Declaration containing 8 MDGs aimed to be accomplished by 2015
2002 The World Summit on SD, Johannesburg, South Africa Report with the results achieved since the Rio Conference, reaffirming previous obligations and setting the guidelines for future developments
2009 The Third World Climate Conference, Geneva, Switzerland Further development of the global Climate Change Monitoring System, including early detection of possible disasters.
2009 World Congress Summit G20, Pittsburgh, USA Agreement amongst G20 member states on a moderate and sustainable economy
2012 UN conference Rio +20, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil “The Future We Want” reinforced the commitment to the SDGs and encouraged the global green economy
2015 UN SD Summit 2015, New York, SAD Presents the UN 2030 Agenda for SD setting up 17 SDGs which should be achieved by 2030
2015 COP21 Paris Climate Change Conference, France Agreement on the reduction of greenhouse gases to mitigate and minimise global warming
2019 COP25 Madrid Climate Change Conference, Spain Agreement on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to zero by 2050—The European Green New Deal