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Table 3 Examples of genome editing in farm animals for increased productivity

From: Broadening the GMO risk assessment in the EU for genome editing technologies in agriculture

Animal Target Trait Technological specification References Off-target analysis
Cow Myostatin (MSTN) gene knockout Enhanced muscle growth TALENs (SDN-1) [222] No analysis of OTEs
Sheep MSTN gene knockout Enhanced muscle growth CRISPR/Cas9 (SDN-1) [223] Biased, screened 17 predicted off-target sites: no OTEs detected
TALENs (SDN-1) [222] No analysis of OTEs
CRISPR/Cas9 (SDN-1) [224] Biased, screened 7 predicted off-target sites: 2 OTEs detected
Goat MSTN gene knockout Enhanced muscle growth CRISPR/Cas9 (SDN-1) [225] Abnormal sugar, fat and protein metabolism
Pig MSTN gene knockout Enhanced muscle growth TALENs (SDN-1) [226] No analysis of OTEs
Sheep Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF-5) gene knockout Increased wool and hair length CRISPR/Cas9 (SDN-1) [227] Biased, screened 3 predicted off-target sites: no OTEs detected
Goat FGF-5 gene knockout Increased wool and hair length CRISPR/Cas9 (SDN-1) [228] No analysis of OTEs
  1. Target genes, traits, and the genome editing technique used to create genome-edited farm animals with increased muscle mass growth or wool/hair length are shown. The respective references were also screened for the analysis of off-target effects
  2. CRISPR/Cas9, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9; SDN-1, site-directed nuclease-1; TALENs, transcription activator-like effector nucleases; OTEs, off-target effects