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Fig. 5 | Environmental Sciences Europe

Fig. 5

From: The activation of antioxidant and apoptosis pathways involved in damage of human proximal tubule epithelial cells by PM2.5 exposure

Fig. 5

Activation of antioxidant pathway induced by PM2.5 in HK-2 cells. a Cells were treated with the indicated concentrations of PM2.5 for 24 h (left) or PM2.5 (200 μg/mL) for different durations (right), and the expression of the antioxidant-related proteins Nrf2, Keap1, HO-1 and NQO1 was analyzed using Western blot. b The intensity of the protein bands was quantified using ImageJ software and normalized to GAPDH. The data are expressed as mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 compared with the control group

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