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Table 1 Important Indian regulations corresponding to some of the Articles of the Minamata Convention on Mercury

From: Implementation of the Minamata Convention to manage mercury pollution in India: challenges and opportunities

Article of Minamata ConventionOverall scope of the ArticleRelated Indian regulations
Article 3: mercury supply sources and tradeObligations to prohibit new primary mercury mining activity, to identify stocks (and supply sources) of mercury or mercury compounds, related to decommissioning of chlor-alkali facilities and management of related mercury, to prohibit export and import of mercuryThe Mines Act, 1952; the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957; the Factories Act, 1948; the Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules, 1989, 1994, 2000; the Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016; the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act, 1992; the Customs Act, 1962
Article 4: mercury-added productsObligations to prohibit manufacture, import or export of mercury-added products, to implement different measures or strategies to address products listed in Part I of the Annex AThe Factories Act and Rules, 1948; the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act, 1992; the Customs Act, 1962
Article 5: manufacturing processes in which mercury or mercury compounds are usedObligations to prohibit and restrict use of mercury and its compounds in manufacturing processes listed in Part I and II of Annex BThe Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules, 1989, 1994, 2000; the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940
Article 7: artisanal and small-scale gold miningObligations to take steps to reduce and/or eliminate the use of mercury and its compounds in ASGM activitiesThe Indian Mines Act, 1952; the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957
Article 8: emissionsObligations to control and/or reduce emissions of mercury and its compounds to the atmosphere from the relevant point sourcesThe Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981; the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
Article 9: releasesObligations to control and/or reduce releases of mercury and mercury compounds to land and water from the relevant point sourcesThe Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974; the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
Article 10: environmentally sound interim storage of mercury, other than waste mercuryObligations to insure environmentally sound interim storage of mercury and mercury compounds as defined in Article 3 and do not fall within the category of mercury wastes as defined in Article 11The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules, 1989, 1994, 2000
Article 11: mercury wastesObligations to take appropriate measures to manage (in environmentally sound manner) waste containing mercury and its compoundsThe Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016; the Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2016; the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2016; the E-waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2016
Article 12: contaminated sitesObligations to develop appropriate strategies for identifying and assessing sites contaminated by mercury or its compounds. (Does not include obligations for remediations of such mercury contaminated sites)The Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016; the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
Article 16: health aspectsTo promote the development and implementation of strategies and programmes to identify and protect populations at risk, particularly vulnerable populationsThe Factories Act, 1948; the Mines Act, 1952; the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2016; the Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness, and Response) Rules, 1996; the Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991; the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954; the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006