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Table 3 Costs of four ammonia emission abatement options, computed based on Oenema et al. [53]—each option would fully achieve the 2020 national emission reduction commitments, in 2016—and benefits of meeting these commitments, derived from WRF/Chem model simulations, integrated exposure–response (IER) functions and value of statistical life (VSL) metric

From: Costs and benefits of agricultural ammonia emission abatement options for compliance with European air quality regulations

 Cost of low nitrogen feed (M€)Cost of covered manure storage (M€)Cost of improving or substituting urea fertilizer application (M€)Cost of low-emission animal housing (M€)Economic benefit of reducing NH3 emissions (M€)
Austria1.80 (1.58–2.01)5.32 (3.34–7.30)5.70 (5.29–6.11)84.29 (75.71–92.86)319.09 (153.96–482.30)
Bulgaria0.27 (0.24–0.30)0.80 (0.50–1.09)0.85 (0.79–0.92)12.63 (11.35–13.92)101.19 (49.06–152.72)
Denmark3.13 (2.75–3.50)9.26 (5.82–12.70)9.92 (9.20–10.64)146.62 (131.70–161.54)212.31 (101.47–321.09)
Estonia0.53 (0.47–0.59)1.56 (0.98–2.15)1.68 (1.55–1.80)24.78 (22.25–27.30)97.63 (47.49–147.79)
Finland1.15 (1.01–1.29)3.40 (2.14–4.66)3.64 (3.38–3.91)53.85 (48.37–59.33)295.22 (83.47–478.66)
France12.15 (10.69–13.61)35.96 (22.60–49.33)38.52 (35.72–41.31)569.48 (511.53–627.44)848.78 (409.80–1282.79)
Germany31.94 (28.11–35.78)94.56 (59.42–129.69)101.26 (93.92–108.61)1497.24 (1344.86–1649.62)3652.42 (1773.67–5514.07)
Hungary2.56 (2.25–2.87)7.57 (4.76–10.39)8.11 (7.52–8.70)119.92 (107.71–132.12)164.99 (80.59–249.19)
Ireland2.50 (2.20–2.79)7.39 (4.64–10.13)7.91 (7.34–8.48)116.95 (105.05–128.85)173.50 (81.76–261.08)
Latvia0.89 (0.78–1.00)2.63 (1.65–3.61)2.82 (2.61–3.02)41.69 (37.45–45.93)26.04 (13.00–39.08)
Luxembourg0.23 (0.20–0.26)0.68 (0.43–0.93)0.73 (0.67–0.78)10.75 (9.65–11.84)25.19 (9.28–38.04)
Portugal0.52 (0.45–0.58)1.53 (0.96–2.09)1.64 (1.52–1.75)24.18 (21.72–26.64)113.80 (46.21–172.04)
Slovakia0.17 (0.15–0.19)0.50 (0.31–0.68)0.53 (0.49–0.57)7.87 (7.07–8.67)92.42 (45.28–139.42)
Spain7.03 (6.19–7.88)20.81 (13.08–28.55)22.29 (20.67–23.91)329.56 (296.02–363.10)182.47 (88.59–274.13)
Sweden2.10 (1.85–2.36)6.23 (3.91–8.54)6.67 (6.18–7.15)98.60 (88.56–108.63)648.43 (206.38–994.32)
United Kingdom12.79 (11.25–14.32)37.85 (23.78–51.91)40.53 (37.59–43.47)599.30 (538.31–660.29)3416.25 (1652.69–5159.09)
EU-1679.75 (70.18–89.32)236.05 (148.33–323.77)252.79 (234.45–271.14)3737.69 (3357.30–4118.08)10,369.74 (4842.69–15,705.82)
EU-2879.75 (70.18–89.32)236.05 (148.33–323.77)252.79 (234.45–271.14)3737.69 (3357.30–4118.08)13,488.21 (6357.81–20,414.03)
EU-28 and neighbouring non-EU countries79.75 (70.18–89.32)236.05 (148.33–323.77)252.79 (234.45–271.14)3737.69 (3357.30–4118.08)14,837.48 (6976.17–22,465.43)
  1. Numbers in parentheses represent uncertainty ranges as described in “Methods