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Fig. 5 | Environmental Sciences Europe

Fig. 5

From: Freshwater ecosystems profit from activated carbon-based wastewater treatment across various levels of biological organisation in a short timeframe

Fig. 5

Concentrations of a diclofenac and b PFOS in the effluent, in surface water, and in fish tissue. Mean values and standard deviations are shown. Fish tissue: muscle tissue of rainbow trout actively exposed in cages in the Schussen River downstream of the WWTP Langwiese. The samples were taken prior to (red) and after (blue) the WWTP upgrade. Sample sizes for diclofenac: effluent before the upgrade: n = 5; effluent after the upgrade: n = 8; water from site S3 before: n = 5 and after: n = 3; rainbow trout exposed upstream before: n = 4 pools of 5 fish each and after: n = 2 pools of 4 fish each; rainbow trout exposed downstream before: n = 4 pools of 5 fish each and after n = 2 pools of 4 fish each. Sample sizes for PFOS: effluent FF (prior to the upgrade): n = 5; effluent PAC FF (after the upgrade): n = 8; S3 before: n = 5 and after: n = 3; rainbow trout exposed upstream before: n = 4 pools of 5 fish each and after: n = 2 pools of 4 fish each; rainbow trout exposed downstream before: n = 4 pools of 5 fish each and after: n = 2 pools of 4 fish each. Limit of quantitation (LOQ) for diclofenac was 10 µg/kg

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