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Table 5 Main methods and expected outcome of WP4: combating oil spill in coastal Arctic waters—effectiveness and environmental effects

From: The EU Horizon 2020 project GRACE: integrated oil spill response actions and environmental effects

General experimental procedure Aims and expected outcome Refs.
Controlled outdoor experiments with burning of oil in sea ice New knowledge on temperature development, burning efficiency and melt pool behaviour Buist [64]
Field tests with in situ burning of oil on the shore line and in the open water in Greenland after obtaining permission from the authorities. Monitoring of impact on seaweed and invertebrates of burning and burning residues in seawater and on the shore New knowledge on how to ignite and control the burn and function of pyro booms. New experience in how to collect burning residue. New information on long-term monitoring of impact on biota by in situ burning Fritt-Rasmussen et al. [65]; Fritt-Rasmussen et al. [66]
Small-scale field studies on coasts in the Arctic, represented by a north–south gradient in Greenland by deploying oiled tiles in the tidal zone Evaluation of the self-cleaning potential and biodegradation of stranded oil on of rocky coasts in the Arctic by deploying oiled tiles and Fucus distichus tips in the tidal zone Fukuyama et al. [67]
Establishment of an “Oil in ice code” to describe ice formation and interaction with oil Tool for facilitation and streamlining of efficient communication between all professionals and stakeholders involved in oil spill issues related to sea ice Lewis et al. [68]
Design and testing of a new mechanical under ice unit for collection of oil under ice Commercial product for mechanical collection of oil under ice to be used with existing remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) Singsaas et al. [69]