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Table 2 The main methods and expected outcome the work of WP1: oil spill detection, monitoring, fate and distribution

From: The EU Horizon 2020 project GRACE: integrated oil spill response actions and environmental effects

General experimental procedure Aims and expected outcome Refs.
Development and characterisation of novel systems for the online exposure of zebrafish embryos under flow-through conditions A novel biosensor based on the behavioural responses of zebrafish embryos for the detection of oil in water Steffens et al. [31]
Nüßer et al. [32]
Integration of UV—fluorometers into FerryBox and SmartBuoy platforms Operational, real-time oil spill detection on fairways Petersen [33]
Lambert [34]
UAVs and gliders are used to monitor localised oil pollution. UAVs are used for mapping of oil spread on the surface. Gliders determine the spatial distribution of an oil spill and its temporal evolution underwater Monitoring and mapping the oil pollution from a shipwreck using UAVs and gliders OGP/IPIECA [35]
URready4OS [36]
Vasilijevic et al. [37]
American Petroleum Institute [41]
Fingas and Brown [39]
Combined use of drifters and UAVs to improve oil spills situational awareness in tactical scale UAV systems together with drifter buoys is a cost-effective way to monitor different marine parameters in case of oil spills, improving considerably situational awareness of operations Lumpkin et al. [40]
American Petroleum Institute [41]
Lagrangian model is applied to assess oil short-time fate in the realistic marine environment combined by meteorological and oceanographic models Oil fate modelling: hind- and forecast module ready to be integrated with measurement systems Wolk [42]
Gräwe and Wolff [43]