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Table 5 The results of the multivariate weighted linear regression analysis displaying the associations between pesticide concentration and environmental factors

From: Pesticide contamination and associated risk factors at public playgrounds near intensively managed apple and wine orchards

OLS linear regression model Estimates (β-weight) 95% CI [LL, UL] p-value     
Intercept 1.0 0.35 to 1.65 0.004     
Distance from agricultural field (m) − 1.07 − 1.99 to − 0.16 0.023     
Apple orchard (%) 0.45 0.07 to 0.83 0.022     
Global irradiance (W m−2) − 1.22 − 1.82 to − 0.63 < 0.001     
Time when spraying not allowed (h)a − 1.03 − 1.45 to − 0.61 < 0.001     
Wind blowing away from playground (h) − 1.23 − 1.92 to − 0.55 0.001     
Rainfall (mm) 0.62 0.20 to 1.04 0.006     
Distance: high wind speed (m s−1) 1.25 0.48 to 2.02 0.003     
Time when spraying allowed (h): Wind speed (m s−1)a 0.81 0.31 to 1.31 0.003     
Basic model information and model fit statistics
N F (8,21) AIC BIC R2 and CI adj. R2 Residual standard error Homoscedasticity (Breusch-Pagan)
69 14.75 84.53 98.54 0.85
0.59–0.87
0.79 1.12 Assumption not violated (P = 0.066)
  1. The model contains first-order interactions showing estimates (β weights) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for all predictors, as well as indicators for model quality (R2, AIC, BIC). All included predictors are significantly associated with pesticide concentration on playgrounds (mg kg−1 = ppm). The dependent outcome variable ‘pesticide concentration (mg kg−1)’ on playgrounds was weighted by the number of detected pesticides per playground. LL, lower level; UL, upper level
  2. A significant b-weight indicates that semi-partial correlation is also significant. LL and UL indicate the lower and upper limits of a confidence interval, respectively
  3. aPesticide spraying is allowed during wind speeds < 3 m s−1