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Table 1 Properties of promising candidate substances for the experimental assessment of infochemical effects

From: Suitable test substances for proof of concept regarding infochemical effects in surface waters

  DEET Reference Icaridine Reference EBAAP Reference Isophorone Reference
CAS 134-62-3   119515-38-7   52304-36-6   78-59-1  
Infochemical potential Insect repellent, PT19 biocide [19] Insect repellent, PT19 biocide [19] Insect repellent, PT19 biocide [19] Natural attractant and anthropogenic HPV solvent (host recognition) [5]
Water solubility 11.2 g/L [29] 8.2 g/L [29] 70 g/L [29] 14.5 g/L [30]
   10.6 g/L [29]    12 g/L [30]
Log K ow 2.4 [29] 2.23 [29] 1.7 [29] 1.67 [30]
2.18 [26] 2.57 [24] 1.51 (calculated) [24] 1.66 [30]
       1.73 [30]
Henry constant 3.93 × 10−3 [29] 9.1 × 10−4 [29] 4.61 × 10−4 (calculated) [29] 6.73 × 10−1 [24]
2.10 × 10−3 (calculated) [24] 3.01 × 10−6 (calculated) [24] 5.36 × 10−5 (calculated) [24]   
Degradability Not persistent [29] Potentially persistent [29] Not persistent [29] Persistent [26]
Persistent [26]       
Readily biodegradable [29] Not readily biodegradable [29] Not readily biodegradable [29] 95% (readily) biodegradable [30]
0% biodegradable [26] Not inherently biodegradable [29] Readily biodegradable (calculated) [24] Inherently biodegradable [30]
Not biodegradable [28] Readily biodegradable [28]    1.5% biodegradable [26]
Not readily biodegradable (calculated) [24] Not readily biodegradable (calculated) [24]    Not readily biodegradable (calculated) [24]
Minor hydrolysis [29] Hydrolytically stable [29] Minor hydrolysis [29] Hydrolysis not relevant [30]
Calculated compartmental distribution with the level III fugacity model of EpiSuite 4.1   [24]       
  Water 18.6%   20.1%   23.5%   27.4%  
  Sediment 0.137%   0.102%   0.078%   0.137%  
  Soil 81.1%   79.8%   76.4%   72.4%  
  Air 0.126%   0.00056%   0.0101%   0.109%  
Monitoring 0.6 to 2.33 μg/L (STP effluent) [25] 0.6 to 1 μg/L (STP influent) < 0.1 μg/L (STP effluent) [25]    <0.5 μg/L (detection limit) [39]
0.02 to 1.13 μg/L (stream) [42] <0.1 to 2.2 μg/L [44]    <0.1 μg/L (background), 10 μg/L (exposure) [30]
8 to 3000 ng/L [37] 0 to 0.01 μg/L [41]    0.65 to 9.1 ng/L (lake) [34]
≤3 μg/L [28]       
<0.08 to 6.9 μg/L [44]       
<0.4 to 454 ng/L (ground water) [40]       
0.06 μg/L (surface water) [43]       
0.03 μg/L (drinking water)        
0.05 to 20 μg/L (STP influent) [35]       
0.02 to 15 μg/L (STP effluent)        
0.007 to 33.4 μg/L (surface water USA)        
0.002 to 1.3 μg/L (surface water)        
13 to 660 ng/L (surface water, median of 188 samples; 55 ng/L) [36]       
Approximately 0.03 μg/L (range, 0.005 to 0.2 μg/L) [38]       
0 to 0.1 μg/L [41]       
29 to 52 ng/L (lake) [34]       
64 to 245 ng/L [27]       
PNEC 0.043 mg/L [27] 0.31 mg/L [29] Not toxic to the aquatic environment [29] 0.089 mg/L [30]
0.076 mg/L [28]       
Aquatic toxicities 96 h LC50 97 mg/L (Danio rerio) [29] 96 h LC50 169.4 mg/L (Oncorhynchus mykiss) [29] 96 h LC50 >100 mg/L (Danio rerio) [29] 96 h LC50 140 mg/L (Cyprinodon variegatus) [30]
96 h LC50 110 mg/L (Pimephales promelas) [32] 32 d NOEC 3.14 mg/L (Danio rerio) [29] 48 h LC50 >100 mg/L (Daphnia magna) [29] 96 h EC50 217 mg/L, LC50 228 mg/L (Pimephales promelas) [30]
96 h LC50 71 mg/L (Oncorhynchus mykiss) [33] 48 h LC50 >103 mg/L (Daphnia magna) [29] 72 h LC50 >100 mg/L (Desmodesmus subspicatus) [29] 32 d NOEC 4.2 mg/L (Pimephales promelas) [30]
51 h LC50 75 mg/L (Daphnia magna) [29] 21 d NOEC 49.25 mg/L (Daphnia magna) [29]    35 d NOEC 11 mg/L, LOEC 19 mg/L (Pimephales promelas) [30]
96 h LC50 100 mg/L (Gammarus fasciatus) [31] 72 h ErC50 87.3 mg/L, NOEC 54.8 mg/L (Scenedesmus subspicatus) [29]    48 h NOEC 15 mg/L, LC50 120 mg/L (Daphnia magna) [30]
        72 h EC10 64 mg/L, EC50 475 mg/L (Scenedesmus subspicatus) [30]
  1. Properties of promising candidate substances for the experimental assessment of infochemical effects due to infochemical potential, relevance to aquatic compartments, minor direct toxicities at low doses and physico-chemical liability for testing. The data are experimentally determined unless explicitly marked (calculated) [24].