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Table 1 Properties of promising candidate substances for the experimental assessment of infochemical effects

From: Suitable test substances for proof of concept regarding infochemical effects in surface waters

 

DEET

Reference

Icaridine

Reference

EBAAP

Reference

Isophorone

Reference

CAS

134-62-3

 

119515-38-7

 

52304-36-6

 

78-59-1

 

Infochemical potential

Insect repellent, PT19 biocide

[19]

Insect repellent, PT19 biocide

[19]

Insect repellent, PT19 biocide

[19]

Natural attractant and anthropogenic HPV solvent (host recognition)

[5]

Water solubility

11.2 g/L

[29]

8.2 g/L

[29]

70 g/L

[29]

14.5 g/L

[30]

  

10.6 g/L

[29]

  

12 g/L

[30]

Log K ow

2.4

[29]

2.23

[29]

1.7

[29]

1.67

[30]

2.18

[26]

2.57

[24]

1.51 (calculated)

[24]

1.66

[30]

      

1.73

[30]

Henry constant

3.93 × 10−3

[29]

9.1 × 10−4

[29]

4.61 × 10−4 (calculated)

[29]

6.73 × 10−1

[24]

2.10 × 10−3 (calculated)

[24]

3.01 × 10−6 (calculated)

[24]

5.36 × 10−5 (calculated)

[24]

  

Degradability

Not persistent

[29]

Potentially persistent

[29]

Not persistent

[29]

Persistent

[26]

Persistent

[26]

      

Readily biodegradable

[29]

Not readily biodegradable

[29]

Not readily biodegradable

[29]

95% (readily) biodegradable

[30]

0% biodegradable

[26]

Not inherently biodegradable

[29]

Readily biodegradable (calculated)

[24]

Inherently biodegradable

[30]

Not biodegradable

[28]

Readily biodegradable

[28]

  

1.5% biodegradable

[26]

Not readily biodegradable (calculated)

[24]

Not readily biodegradable (calculated)

[24]

  

Not readily biodegradable (calculated)

[24]

Minor hydrolysis

[29]

Hydrolytically stable

[29]

Minor hydrolysis

[29]

Hydrolysis not relevant

[30]

Calculated compartmental distribution with the level III fugacity model of EpiSuite 4.1

 

[24]

      

  Water

18.6%

 

20.1%

 

23.5%

 

27.4%

 

  Sediment

0.137%

 

0.102%

 

0.078%

 

0.137%

 

  Soil

81.1%

 

79.8%

 

76.4%

 

72.4%

 

  Air

0.126%

 

0.00056%

 

0.0101%

 

0.109%

 

Monitoring

0.6 to 2.33 μg/L (STP effluent)

[25]

0.6 to 1 μg/L (STP influent) < 0.1 μg/L (STP effluent)

[25]

  

<0.5 μg/L (detection limit)

[39]

0.02 to 1.13 μg/L (stream)

[42]

<0.1 to 2.2 μg/L

[44]

  

<0.1 μg/L (background), 10 μg/L (exposure)

[30]

8 to 3000 ng/L

[37]

0 to 0.01 μg/L

[41]

  

0.65 to 9.1 ng/L (lake)

[34]

≤3 μg/L

[28]

      

<0.08 to 6.9 μg/L

[44]

      

<0.4 to 454 ng/L (ground water)

[40]

      

0.06 μg/L (surface water)

[43]

      

0.03 μg/L (drinking water)

       

0.05 to 20 μg/L (STP influent)

[35]

      

0.02 to 15 μg/L (STP effluent)

       

0.007 to 33.4 μg/L (surface water USA)

       

0.002 to 1.3 μg/L (surface water)

       

13 to 660 ng/L (surface water, median of 188 samples; 55 ng/L)

[36]

      

Approximately 0.03 μg/L (range, 0.005 to 0.2 μg/L)

[38]

      

0 to 0.1 μg/L

[41]

      

29 to 52 ng/L (lake)

[34]

      

64 to 245 ng/L

[27]

      

PNEC

0.043 mg/L

[27]

0.31 mg/L

[29]

Not toxic to the aquatic environment

[29]

0.089 mg/L

[30]

0.076 mg/L

[28]

      

Aquatic toxicities

96 h LC50 97 mg/L (Danio rerio)

[29]

96 h LC50 169.4 mg/L (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

[29]

96 h LC50 >100 mg/L (Danio rerio)

[29]

96 h LC50 140 mg/L (Cyprinodon variegatus)

[30]

96 h LC50 110 mg/L (Pimephales promelas)

[32]

32 d NOEC 3.14 mg/L (Danio rerio)

[29]

48 h LC50 >100 mg/L (Daphnia magna)

[29]

96 h EC50 217 mg/L, LC50 228 mg/L (Pimephales promelas)

[30]

96 h LC50 71 mg/L (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

[33]

48 h LC50 >103 mg/L (Daphnia magna)

[29]

72 h LC50 >100 mg/L (Desmodesmus subspicatus)

[29]

32 d NOEC 4.2 mg/L (Pimephales promelas)

[30]

51 h LC50 75 mg/L (Daphnia magna)

[29]

21 d NOEC 49.25 mg/L (Daphnia magna)

[29]

  

35 d NOEC 11 mg/L, LOEC 19 mg/L (Pimephales promelas)

[30]

96 h LC50 100 mg/L (Gammarus fasciatus)

[31]

72 h ErC50 87.3 mg/L, NOEC 54.8 mg/L (Scenedesmus subspicatus)

[29]

  

48 h NOEC 15 mg/L, LC50 120 mg/L (Daphnia magna)

[30]

       

72 h EC10 64 mg/L, EC50 475 mg/L (Scenedesmus subspicatus)

[30]

  1. Properties of promising candidate substances for the experimental assessment of infochemical effects due to infochemical potential, relevance to aquatic compartments, minor direct toxicities at low doses and physico-chemical liability for testing. The data are experimentally determined unless explicitly marked (calculated) [24].