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Table 2 Important materials commercially used in traction batteries for electric vehicles since 1998

From: Electric cars: technical characteristics and environmental impacts

Battery type

Active chemical components

Energy density (Wh/kg)

Costs (Euro/kWh)

Cars (examples)

Lead-acid

Pb/PbO2

30 to 35a

up to 100d

GM EV1 (1996 to 1999), REVA

H2SO4

10 to 40b

100 to 150a

Nickel metal hydrides (NiMH)

various alloys, as e.g., LaNdNiCoSi

60 to 70a

300 to 350a

Toyota RAV4EV-I (1997-2003), Toyota Prius I-III

80c

50 to 105b

Zebra

NaCl-Ni

150c

500e

Th!nk City, Smart EV, Smith Electric Vehicles

80 to 120b

Lithium-ion

Li-Ni-Co-Al

all types of chemistry: 120 to 150a

500 to 750f

Th!ink City, Mitsubishi I-MiEV, GM Volt/Opel Ampera, Nissan Leaf, Tesla

Li-Ni-Mn-Co

500 to 1,000g

LiMn2O4

 

Li-titanate

85 to 160b

 

LiFePO4

370h (cells only)

Li-Polymer (LiPo)