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Table 2 Important materials commercially used in traction batteries for electric vehicles since 1998

From: Electric cars: technical characteristics and environmental impacts

Battery type Active chemical components Energy density (Wh/kg) Costs (Euro/kWh) Cars (examples)
Lead-acid Pb/PbO2 30 to 35a up to 100d GM EV1 (1996 to 1999), REVA
H2SO4 10 to 40b 100 to 150a
Nickel metal hydrides (NiMH) various alloys, as e.g., LaNdNiCoSi 60 to 70a 300 to 350a Toyota RAV4EV-I (1997-2003), Toyota Prius I-III
50 to 105b
Zebra NaCl-Ni 150c 500e Th!nk City, Smart EV, Smith Electric Vehicles
80 to 120b
Lithium-ion Li-Ni-Co-Al all types of chemistry: 120 to 150a 500 to 750f Th!ink City, Mitsubishi I-MiEV, GM Volt/Opel Ampera, Nissan Leaf, Tesla
Li-Ni-Mn-Co 500 to 1,000g
Li-titanate 85 to 160b  
LiFePO4 370h (cells only)
Li-Polymer (LiPo)