Skip to main content


Figure 2 | Environmental Sciences Europe

Figure 2

From: Electric cars: technical characteristics and environmental impacts

Figure 2

CO 2 life cycle assessment based on a converted Smart car. Preliminary and simplified CO2 life cycle assessment based on data obtained during a conversion of a used Smart from an ICEV to a BEV. Calculation conditions: 100,000 km lifetime, grid electricity 563 g CO2/kWh (German Federal Environmental Agency, number for 2010), and renewable electricity mix 30 g CO2/kWh (reviewed in [5]). Smart I model, petrol-fuelled, built in the year 2000 (also calculated as being ‘new’), and purchased in 2011 with 106,000 km driven. ICE engine, tank components, and exhaust system were removed, gearbox was kept. Fuel chain emissions of 2.88 t (included in 16.1 t operation emissions) calculated according to Öko-Institut [56] for petrol provision. CO2 impacts of the battery, drivetrain, and glider production calculated according to Notter et al. [61]. Weight of the glider, 597 kg. Cutoff allocation rule applied for the glider in column 4 (converted Smart). Electric engine including gearbox and all accessories weigh 122 kg; battery weight is 161 kg. Further information is provided in the text.

Back to article page