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Table 1 US-EPA's tier 1 Battery, and modes of action detected

From: Endocrine disruptor screening: regulatory perspectives and needs

  Direct Receptor Mediated Steroidogenesis   
  E a Anti-E a A a Anti-A a E-production a A-production a HPG-Axis b HPT-axis c
In Vitro
ER Bindinge X Xe       
ERα TA X        
AR Bindinge    X X     
Steroidogenesis H295R      X X   
Aromatase Recombinantf      X    
In Vivo
Uterotrophicg X        
Hershbergerh    X X   X   
Pubertal maleh    X X   X X X
Pubertal femaleg X Xe    X   X X
Amphibian Metamorphosisi         X
Fish short-term reproductionj X Xe X X X X X  
  1. aEstrogen and androgen; bhypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis; chypothalamic-pituitary-thyroidal axis; destrogen and androgenreceptor binding; eassays are expected to detect anti-estrogens, but this was not established during the validation process since no estrogen receptor antagonists were tested; frecombinant aromatase assay; gfemale rat; hmale rat; iamphibian metamorphosis assay; jreproduction test with male and female fish. Modified after