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Table 7 Toxic loads (TL) rankings of herbicide AIs used in 2019 in Austria for honeybees (A. mellifera), earthworms (E. fetida) and birds (S. serinus), share on total TL for each organism, change 2010 vs 2019 and parameters from linear models testing changes of toxic loads, P-values in bold if significant, arrows indicate the direction of the change

From: Reducing overall herbicide use may reduce risks to humans but increase toxic loads to honeybees, earthworms and birds

Rank Active ingredient LD50 Half-life [days] Share on TL 2019 (%) Change 2010–19 (%) R2 F-value P-value  
Honeybees [µg bee−1]        
1 Diquat 13.0 5500 92.6 646 0.65 15.08 0.005
2 Iron sulphate 100.0 1000 4.7 187 0.67 16.54 0.004
3 Terbuthylazin 22.6 22 0.6 − 6 0.17 1.61 0.240  
4 Glyphosate 100.0 24 0.4 − 38 0.36 4.43 0.069  
5 Pendimethalin 101.2 101 0.4 − 27 0.15 1.25 0.300  
6 Chlorotoluron 88.7 70 0.2 4946 0.99 200.70 0.001
7 S-metolachlor 85.0 23 0.2 4 0.02 0.13 0.728  
8 Aclonifen 107.0 80 0.2 a− 2 0.00 0.01 0.925  
9 Flufenacet 100.0 39 0.1 19 0.02 1.21 0.304  
10 Nicosulfuron 5.2 19 0.1 198 0.46 6.74 0.032
Earthworms [mg earthworms−1]       
1 Diquat 193.0 5500 94.9 646 0.65 15.08 0.005
2 Iron sulphate 7838.0 1000 0.9 187 0.67 16.54 0.004
3 Aclonifen 307.1 80 0.9 a− 2 0.00 0.01 0.925  
4 Terbuthylazin 290.1 22 0.7 − 6 0.17 1.61 0.240  
5 Flufenacet 448.3 39 0.4 19 0.13 1.21 0.304  
6 Prosulfocarb 147.0 10 0.3 122 0.72 20.68 0.002
7 Pendimethalin 2047.0 101 0.3 − 27 0.15 1.25 0.300  
8 MCPA 665.3 25 0.3 42 0.49 7.70 0.024
9 S-metolachlor 1166.8 23 0.2 4 0.02 0.13 0.728  
10 Dimethenamid-P 602.6 16 0.2 77 0.18 1.77 0.221  
Birds [mg bird−1]        
1 Diquat 0.4 5500 97.3 646 0.65 15.08 0.005
2 Iron sulphate 8.4 1000 1.7 187 0.67 16.54 0.004
3 Chlorotoluron 2.2 70 0.2 4946 0.99 200.70 0.001
4 MCPA 1.6 25 0.2 42 0.49 7.70 0.024
5 Pendimethalin 6.4 101 0.2 − 27 0.15 1.25 0.300  
6 Glyphosate 15.4 24 0.1 − 38 0.36 4.43 0.069  
7 Terbuthylazin 8.5 22 0.1 − 6 0.17 1.61 0.240  
8 Metribuzin 1.1 19  < 0.1 76 0.68 16.97 0.003
9 Aclonifen 13.7 80  < 0.1 a− 2 0.00 0.01 0.925  
10 S-metolachlor 11.3 23  < 0.1 4 0.02 0.13 0.728  
  1. LD50 and half-life date from [91]
  2. a%-change from 2015 to 2019 only, because data for aclonifen were missing in 2010