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Table 6 Toxic load (TL) assessment of herbicide classes for honeybees (A. mellifera, oral), earthworms (E. fetida) and birds (S. serinus), TL share of herbicide class for each organism, change 2010 vs 2019 and parameters from linear models testing changes of toxic loads, P-values in bold if significant, arrows indicate the direction of the change

From: Reducing overall herbicide use may reduce risks to humans but increase toxic loads to honeybees, earthworms and birds

Chemical class Species TL share 2019 (%) Change 2010–19 (%) R2 F-value P-value
Amides and anilides Honeybee 0.4 11 0.06 0.47 0.510  
  Earthworms 1.0 13 0.14 1.33 0.283  
  Birds 0.1 15 0.12 1.10 0.326  
Carbamates and biscarbamates Honeybee  < 0.1 − 43 0.58 10.98 0.011
Earthworms 0.2 − 41 0.56 10.09 0.013
  Birds  < 0.1 − 43 0.62 13.27 0.007
Phenoxy-phytohormones Honeybee 0.1 − 64 0.62 12.96 0.007
  Earthworms 0.3 − 35 0.08 0.71 0.425  
  Birds 0.2 − 26 0.00 0.02 0.883  
Triazines and triazinones Honeybee 0.6 − 10 0.24 2.51 0.152  
  Earthworms 0.7 − 8 0.21 2.08 0.188  
  Birds 0.1 3 0.03 0.25 0.629  
Organophosphates Honeybee 0.4 − 39 0.36 4.56 0.065  
  Earthworms 0.1 − 55 0.48 7.44 0.026
  Birds 0.1 − 42 0.39 5.15 0.053  
Ureas, uracils and sulfonylureas Honeybee 0.3 149 0.74 22.87 0.001
Earthworms 0.2 30 0.18 1.74 0.223  
  Birds 0.2 280 0.67 16.57 0.004
Dinitroanilines Honeybee 0.4 − 27 0.15 1.25 0.300  
  Earthworms 0.3 − 27 0.15 1.25 0.300  
  Birds 0.2 − 27 0.15 1.25 0.300  
Benzoic acids Honeybee  < 0.1 − 16 0.39 5.15 0.053  
  Earthworms  < 0.1 − 16 0.39 5.15 0.053  
  Birds  < 0.1 − 16 0.39 5.15 0.053  
Diphenyl ethers Honeybee 0.2 a18 0.49 6.62 0.037
  Earthworms 0.9 a240 0.73 19.00 0.003
  Birds  < 0.1 a− 23 0.60 10.70 0.014
Bipyridyliums Honeybee 92.6 646 0.65 15.08 0.005
  Earthworms 94.9 646 0.65 15.08 0.005
  Birds 97.3 646 0.65 15.08 0.005
Thiocarbamates Honeybee  < 0.1 109 0.71 19.65 0.002
  Earthworms 0.3 118 0.72 20.39 0.002
  Birds 0.0 102 0.70 19.06 0.002
Inorganic herbicides Honeybee 4.7 187 0.67 16.54 0.004
  Earthworms 0.9 187 0.67 16.54 0.004
  Birds 1.7 187 0.67 16.54 0.004
Other herbicides Honeybee 0.2 − 20 0.63 13.51 0.006
  Earthworms 0.2 − 41 0.83 40.05  < 0.001
  Birds  < 0.1 − 75 0.87 51.24  < 0.001
  1. a% change from 2011 to 2019, because in 2010 amounts of diphenyl ether were missing