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Table 3 Herbicide chemical classes market share based on amounts sold, and change between 2010 vs 2019 in Austria

From: Reducing overall herbicide use may reduce risks to humans but increase toxic loads to honeybees, earthworms and birds

Chemical class Market share 2019 (%) Change 2010–19 (%) R2 F-value β1 β0 P-value  
Amides and anilides 21.0 2 0.13 1.14 − 2E+ 03 4E+ 06 0.316  
Carbamates and biscarbamates 0.9 − 45 0.62 12.95 − 7E+ 02 1E+ 06 0.007
Phenoxy-phytohormones 7.6 − 51 0.34 4.04 − 6E+ 03 1E+ 07 0.079  
Triazines and triazinones 14.2 − 27 0.53 9.10 − 7E+ 03 2E + 07 0.017
Organophosphates 22.4 − 49 0.45 6.65 − 2E+ 04 4E+ 07 0.033
Ureas, uracils and sulfonylureas 5.1 − 39 0.47 7.00 − 4E+ 03 8E+ 06 0.029
Dinitroanilines 5.3 − 27 0.15 1.23 − 2E+ 03 3E+ 06 0.304  
Benzoic acids 2.3 − 16 0.39 5.17 − 1E+ 03 2E+ 06 0.053  
Diphenyl ethers 2.9 a− 33 0.65 13.08 − 2E+ 03 4E+ 06 0.009
Bipyridyliums 2.8 646 0.65 15.10 2E+ 03 − 5E+ 06 0.005
Thiocarbamates 4.2 119 0.72 20.29 4E+ 03 − 8E+ 06 0.002
Inorganic herbicides 5.9 187 0.67 16.55 7E+ 03 − 1E+ 07 0.004
Other herbicides 5.4 − 30 0.43 6.16 − 5E+ 03 1E+ 07 0.038
Total amounts 100 − 24 0.74 23.26 − 3E+ 04 7E+ 07 0.001
  1. P-values and parameters from linear models testing changes over the years. Significant P-values in bold, arrows indicate the direction of the change
  2. a% Change from 2011–2019, because in 2010 amounts of diphenyl ether were missing