Skip to main content

Table 1 Classification of active ingredients in toxicity categories regarding honeybees, earthworms and birds [91]

From: Reducing overall herbicide use may reduce risks to humans but increase toxic loads to honeybees, earthworms and birds

Species Toxicity category
Highly toxic Moderately toxic Non-toxic
Honeybee LD50 [µg bee−1] (oral and contact exposure)Honeybee LD50 [µg bee−1] (oral and contact exposure) < 1 1–100  > 100
Earthworm LC50 [mg kgsoil−1] < 10 10–1000  > 1000
Earthworm NOEC [mg kgsoil−1] < 0.1 0.1–100  > 100
Bird LD50 [mg kgbw−1] < 100 100–2000  > 2000
Bird NOEL [mg kgbw−1 d−1] < 10 10–200  > 200