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Table 5 Summary of biological responses depending on site or season for caged (CF) and field-captured (FF) fish

From: Fish health in the Nidda as an indicator for ecosystem integrity: a case study for Central European small streams in densely populated areas

  Species Histopathology EROD activity Micro-/binuclei
Liver Gills Site Season Site Season
Site Season Site Season
CF monitoring O. mykiss X X
HC2     N2    
FF monitoring S. trutta f. fario (↑) (↑) X (↑) X
N2 Autumn   Autumn   Spring N2 Spring
L. cephalus (↑) X X X X X X
N2   N2      
B. barbatula (↑) X X X X X X
N2, N3 Spring N3       
  1. Arrows indicate statistically significant differences with related sites or season (given in the line below the arrow).↑ depicts increased effects (histopathology) or values (EROD activity, micro-/binuclei), ↓ depicts less effects (histopathology) or decreased values (EROD activity, micro-/binuclei). Arrows in parenthesis indicate statically insignificant tendencies, whereas “X” indicates no differences. “–” is noted if a comparison is not applicable