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Table 1 Classification of R principles.

From: The Circular Economy and retail: using Deep Learning to predict business survival

Increasing circularity
 Smarter product manufacture and use
  R0 Refuse Make product redundant by abandoning its function or by offering the same function with a radically different product
  R1 Rethink Make product use more intensive (e.g., by sharing product)
  R2 Reduce Increase efficiency in product manufacture or use by consuming fewer natural resources and materials
 Extend the lifespan of a product and its parts
  R3 Reuse Reuse by another consumer of a discarded product, which is still in good condition and fulfills its original function
  R4 Repair Repair and maintenance of defective product so it can be used with its original function
  R5 Refurbish Restore an old product and bring it up to date
  R6 Re-manufacture Use parts of a discarded product in a new product with the same function
  R7 Repurpose Process materials to obtain the same (high grade) or lower (low grade) quality
 Useful application of materials
  R8 Recycle Process materials to obtain the same (high grade) or lower (low grade) quality
  R9 Recover Incineration of material with energy recovery