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Table 5 Adverse events/effects—carcinogenesis

From: Evaluation of adverse effects/events of genetically modified food consumption: a systematic review of animal and human studies

Study ID Participant (T/C/R) a Sample size (male/female) Intervention/exposure Dosage Duration Generation Outcome Result
Cyran N 2008 b [32]** T1: F1 mice 10 33.0% of the transgenic corn (NK603 x MON810) (formulated in accordance with basal diet, similarly hereinafter) Ad libitum 22 months 1 1.Typical pathological findings 1. Cachexia, spleno- and hepatomegaly with diffuse or local infiltration with abnormal leukocytes
  C1: F1 mice 10 33.0% isoline     2.Incidence of cancer 2. 2 mice of each group were still alive after almost 22 months. The common causes of death were cancer (leucosis)
  R1: F1 mice 10 33.0% GM-free Austrian corn    
Séralini GE 2014 [74]** T1: male (virgin albino Sprague–Dawley rats, (similarly hereinafter) 20 Plain water and 11% of GM NK603 maize treated with Roundup Ad libitum 2 years 1 The number of pathological abnormalities of mammary tumours in females (the number of rats reached was in parentheses while 10 rats per group were analysed) GMO 11% + R (T2 group): 10 (6)
GMO 11% (T4 group): 15 (7)
GMO 22% + R (T6 group): 11 (7)
GMO 22% (T8 group): 10 (7)
GMO 33% + R (T10 group): 13 (9)
GMO 33% (T12 group): 15 (8)
C2: 8 (5)
C4: 20 (9)
C6: 16 (10)
C8: 12 (9)
  T2: female 20 Plain water and 11% of GM NK603 maize treated with Roundup    
  T3: male 20 Plain water and 11% of GM NK603 maize not treated with Roundup    
  T4: female 20 Plain water and 11% of GM NK603 maize not treated with Roundup    
  T5: male 20 Plain water and 22% of GM NK603 maize treated with Roundup    
  T6: female 20 Plain water and 22% of GM NK603 maize treated with Roundup    
  T7: male 20 Plain water and 22% of GM NK603 maize not treated with Roundup     
  T8: female 20 Plain water and 22% of GM NK603 maize not treated with Roundup      
  T9: male 20 Plain water and 33% of GM NK603 maize treated with Roundup      
  T10: female 20 Plain water and 33% of GM NK603 maize treated with Roundup      
  T11: male 20 Plain water and 33% of GM NK603 maize not treated with Roundup      
  T12: female 20 Plain water and 33% of GM NK603 maize not treated with Roundup      
  C1: male 20 Plain water and standard diet from the closest isogenic non-transgenic maize control      
  C2: female 20 Plain water and standard diet from the closest isogenic non-transgenic maize control      
  C3: male 20 Control diet and water with 1.1*10–8% of R (the contaminating level of some regular tap waters)      
  C4: female 20 Control diet and water with 1.1*10–8% of R (the contaminating level of some regular tap waters)      
  C5: male 20 Control diet and water with 0.09% of R (US MRL of glyphosate in some GM feed)      
  C6: female 20 Control diet and water with 0.09% of R (US MRL of glyphosate in some GM feed)      
  C7: male 20 Control diet and water with 0.5% of R (half of the minimal agricultural working dilution)      
  C8: female 20 Control diet and water with 0.5% of R (half of the minimal agricultural working dilution)      
Tang XQ 2019 [156]** Sprague–Dawley rats T: 48 (24/24) Transgenic rice T2A-1 with cry2A* gene (60.75% during the growth period and 66.75% during the maintenance period, formulated in accordance with AIN-93 diet) Ad libitum 52 weeks 1 Incidence of tumours Only common spontaneous tumours in elderly SD rats were observed including 1 case of thyroid follicular adenoma, 1 case of renal tubular epithelial adenoma and 1 case of lipoma in the AIN-93 diet group, and 1 case of breast adenoma in the GM group
   C: 48 (24/24) Non-transgenic rice of parent ‘Minghui 63’ line (60.75% during the growth period and 66.75% during the maintenance period, formulated in accordance with AIN-93 diet)     
   R: 48 (24/24) AIN-93 diet      
  1. aT/C/R refers to treatment group/control group/reference group
  2. F0 refers to parental generation
  3. F1–F4 refer to the generation of filial generation
  4. ** refers to a serious adverse event