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Table 3 Mortality-related data of study population receiving GM food

From: Evaluation of adverse effects/events of genetically modified food consumption: a systematic review of animal and human studies

Study ID Participant
(T/C/R)a
Sample size
(male/female)
Intervention/exposure Dosage Duration Generation Outcome Result
Carman JA 2013 [26]** Yorkshire-cross piglets (isowean pig) T:84 Mixed DK 42–88 RR YG PL corn and RR soy Ad libitum 22.7 weeks 1 Mortality T: 14%,
C:84 Non-GM varieties of soy and corn C: 13% (no difference)
Cyran N 2008 a [32]** T1: F0 mice 36 33.0% of the transgenic corn (NK603 × MON810) (formulated in accordance with basal diet, similarly hereinafter) Ad libitum The duration of the F0 generation was not known 5 Mortality in parental performance
(after weaning)
No differences were seen in the performance of the parental mice in all generations
T2: 3 females of 24 pairs died before delivery for unknown reasons;
C2: 1 female of 24 pairs died before delivery for unknown reasons;
R2: 1 female of 24 pairs died before delivery for unknown reasons;
C3: 1 female of 24 pairs died before delivery for unknown reasons;
C1: F0 mice 36 33.0% isoline  
R1: F0 mice 36 33.0% GM-free Austrian corn  
T2: F1 mice 184 33.0% of the transgenic corn (NK603 x MON810) after weaning   For pups, the duration was 7 weeks (3 weeks suckling to the dam + 4 weeks consuming the test diet)
C2: F1 mice 185 33.0% isoline after weaning  
R2: F1 mice 138 33.0% GM-free Austrian corn after weaning  
T3: F2 mice 189 33.0% of the transgenic corn (NK603 x MON810) after weaning    
C3: F2 mice 198 33.0% isoline after weaning  
R3: F2 mice 194 33.0% GM-free Austrian corn after weaning   
T4: F3 mice 208 33.0% of the transgenic corn (NK603 x MON810) after weaning   
C4: F3 mice 202 33.0% isoline after weaning   
R4: F3 mice 230 33.0% GM-free Austrian corn after weaning   
T5: F4 mice 125 33.0% of the transgenic corn (NK603 x MON810) after weaning    
C5: F4 mice 145 33.0% isoline after weaning    
R5: F4 mice 199 33.0% GM-free Austrian corn after weaning    
Cyran N 2008 b [32]** T1: F1 mice 10 33.0% of the transgenic corn (NK603 x MON810) (formulated in accordance with basal diet, similarly hereinafter) Ad libitum 22 months 1 1. Survive
2. Average life time of mice
1. 2 mice of each group were still alive after almost 22 months
2. 16.3 months in the ISO
15.7 months in the A REF
17.0 months in the GM group but was not significantly different
  C1: F1 mice 10 33.0% isoline     
  R1: F1 mice 10 33.0% GM-free Austrian corn     
Ermakova I 2005 [37] ** T1: F0 Wistar rats 6 T1: Roundup-Ready soya (40.3.2 line) (formulated in accordance with standard laboratory feed, similarly hereinafter) T1/C1: before mating: 20 g soya flour for every cage (5–7 g flour for each rat) every day; upon delivery: the amount of soya supplement was increased by an additional g for every pup born Not reported 2 1. Pup mortality (number of dead rats in F1/number of rats born in F1)
2. Pup mortality from every female in T1 (number of pups died/number of newborn rats)
1. T2: 25/45 (55.6%)
C2: 3/33 (9%)
R2: 3/44 (6.8%)
  C1: F0 Wistar rats 3 C1: traditional soya variety    2. Female No.1: 7/11, 64%
Female No.2: 4/8, 50%
Female No.3: 6/13, 46%
Female No.4: 8/13, 62%
  R1: F0 Wistar rats 6 R1: standard laboratory feed without any supplementation Ad libitum    
  T2: F1 Wistar rats 45 T2: Roundup-Ready soya (40.3.2 line) T2/C2: from 13–14 days of age: 2–3 g soya supplement for every pup   
  C2: F1 Wistar rats 33 C2: traditional soya variety   
  R2: F1 Wistar rats 44 R2: standard laboratory feed without any supplementation Ad libitum   
Hammond B 2006 [42]** Sprague–Dawley rats T1: male 20 Corn rootworm-protected corn event of approximately 11% w/w (formulated in accordance with basal diet, similarly hereinafter) Ad libitum 90d 1 Mortality T3 group: 1/20 (died on day 92, the cause of death was unknown because macroscopic or microscopic examination of tissues showed no unusual)
C3 group: 1/20 (died on day 64, a broken maxilla was found at necropsy)
1/120 (1 male in a reference group died on day 88, the cause of death was not apparent)
2/120 (2 females in a reference group died at week 5 shortly after the interim blood collections)
   T2: female 20 MON 863 of 11% w/w     
   T3: male 20 MON 863 of 33% w/w     
   T4: female 20 MON 863 of 33% w/w     
   C1: male 20 Near-isogenic control of 11% w/w     
   C2: female 20 Near-isogenic control of 11% w/w     
   C3: male 20 Near-isogenic control of 33% w/w     
   C4: female 20 Near-isogenic control of 33% w/w     
   R1: male 20 Reference variety A of 33% w/w     
   R2: female 20 Reference variety A of 33% w/w     
   R3: male 20 Reference variety B of 33% w/w     
   R4: female 20 Reference variety B of 33% w/w     
   R5: male 20 Reference variety C of 33% w/w     
   R6: female 20 Reference variety C of 33% w/w     
   R7: male 20 Reference variety D of 33% w/w     
   R8: female 20 Reference variety D of 33% w/w      
   R9: male 20 Reference variety E of 33% w/w      
   R10: female 20 Reference variety E of 33% w/w      
   R11: male 20 Reference variety F of 33% w/w      
   R12: female 20 Reference variety F of 33% w/w      
Naegeli H 2018 a [35]** CD-1(ICR) mice T1: 32 (16/16) Cry1A.105 protein (in bicarbonate buffer solution) At targeted nominal doses of 10 mg/kg bw per day 28d 1 Mortality No test substance-related mortality was observed
T3 group: 3/32 were found dead or were sacrificed as a consequence of gavage errors (1 male on day 3, 2 females on day 14 and 17)
C group: 1/32 (1 male died on day 13 with an unestablished cause of death
   T2: 32 (16/16) Cry1A.105 protein (in bicarbonate buffer solution) At targeted nominal doses of 100 mg/kg bw per day    
   T3: 32 (16/16) Cry1A.105 protein (in bicarbonate buffer solution) At targeted nominal doses of 1000 mg/kg bw per day    
   C: 32 (16/16) Bovine serum albumin at a targeted nominal dose of 1000 mg/kg bw per day    
Naegeli H 2018 b [35]** CD-1(ICR) mice T1: 32 (16/16) Cry2Ab2 protein (in bicarbonate buffer solution) At targeted nominal doses of 10 mg/kg bw per day 28d 1 Mortality No test substance-related mortality was observed
T2 group: 1/32 (1 female died as a consequence of gavage errors)
C group: 1/32 (1 male died as a consequence of gavage errors)
   T2: 32 (16/16) Cry2Ab2 protein (in bicarbonate buffer solution) At targeted nominal doses of 100 mg/kg bw per day    
   T3: 32 (16/16) Cry2Ab2 protein (in bicarbonate buffer solution) At targeted nominal doses of 1000 mg/kg bw per day    
   C: 32 (16/16) Bovine serum albumin at a targeted nominal dose of 1000 mg/kg bw per day     
Qian ZY 2018 b [68]** Wistar rats T1: 40 (20/20) 7.5% transgenic DAS-44406–6 soybean (formulated in accordance with basal diet, similarly hereinafter) Ad libitum 90d 1 Mortality There were no test substance-related deaths, but two females in two GM groups were found dead before study termination. One female rat from the 7.5% DAS-44406–6 group was found dead on study day 52. The likely cause of death for this animal was consistent with acute trauma as microscopic findings included acute haemorrhage around the olfactory bulb of the brain, tongue, and salivary gland. One female in the 15% DAS-44406–6 group was found dead on study day 94. The cause of death was attributed to the jugular blood collection procedure as the animal died after phlebotomy and had macroscopic findings of dark red skeletal muscle on the ventral neck
   T2: 40 (20/20) 15% transgenic DAS-44406–6 soybean  
   T3: 40 (20/20) 30% transgenic DAS-44406–6 soybean  
   C1: 40 (20/20) Standard basal diet (the main nutritional composition met with standard GB 14,924.3–2001 “Laboratory animals – Mice and rat formula feeds.”)  
   C2: 40 (20/20) 7.5% near isoline soybean  
   C3: 40 (20/20) 15% near isoline soybean  
   C4: 40 (20/20) 30% near isoline soybean  
Sakamoto Y 2008 [196]** F344 DuCrj rats T1: male 50 30% Pioneer brand 90B72 GM soybean, (formulated in accordance with basal diet, similarly hereinafter) Ad libitum 104 weeks 1 Survival rate There was no significant difference between groups. The survival rates in each group were as follows
76%
   T2: female 50 30% Pioneer brand 90B72 GM Soybean      80%
   C1: male 50 30% 9071 Non-GM soybean      73%
   C2: female 50 30% 9071Non-GM soybean      70%
   C3: male 35 Commercial diet (CE-2)      80%
   C4: female 35 Commercial diet (CE-2)      74%
Séralini GE 2014 [74]** T1: male (virgin albino Sprague–Dawley rats, (similarly hereinafter)
T2: female
T3: male
T4: female
20 Plain water and 11% of GM NK603 maize treated with Roundup Ad libitum 2 years 1 1. Mortality by the end of the experiment Control males: 30% (3 rats)
Control females: 20% (2 rats)
Males in GM groups with or without Roundup: 50%
Females in GM groups with or without Roundup: 70%
20 Plain water and 11% of GM NK603 maize treated with Roundup    
20 Plain water and 11% of GM NK603 maize not treated with Roundup     2. Mortality before mean survival time Females in all treated group and 3 male groups fed GMOs: mortality was 2–3 times more than controls and more rapid
20 Plain water and 11% of GM NK603 maize not treated with Roundup     
  T5: male 20 Plain water and 22% of GM NK603 maize treated with Roundup      
  T6: female 20 Plain water and 22% of GM NK603 maize treated with Roundup      
  T7: male 20 Plain water and 22% of GM NK603 maize not treated with Roundup      
  T8: female 20 Plain water and 22% of GM NK603 maize not treated with Roundup      
  T9: male 20 Plain water and 33% of GM NK603 maize treated with Roundup      
  T10: female 20 Plain water and 33% of GM NK603 maize treated with Roundup      
  T11: male 20 Plain water and 33% of GM NK603 maize not treated with Roundup      
  T12: female 20 Plain water and 33% of GM NK603 maize not treated with Roundup      
  C1: male 20 Plain water and standard diet from the closest isogenic non-transgenic maize control      
  C2: female 20 Plain water and standard diet from the closest isogenic non-transgenic maize control      
  C3: male 20 Control diet and water with 1.1*10–8% of R (the contaminating level of some regular tap waters)      
  C4: female 20 Control diet and water with 1.1*10–8% of R (the contaminating level of some regular tap waters)      
  C5: male 20 Control diet and water with 0.09% of R (US MRL of glyphosate in some GM feed)      
  C6: female 20 Control diet and water with 0.09% of R (US MRL of glyphosate in some GM feed)      
  C7: male 20 Control diet and water with 0.5% of R (half of the minimal agricultural working dilution)      
  C8: female 20 Control diet and water with 0.5% of R (half of the minimal agricultural working dilution)      
Talyn B 2019 [88]** 3-day-old adult Drosophila melanogaster T1: 278 (129/149) Herbicide-tolerant w/Roundup (standard medium made with genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant corn (NK603), which was sprayed with Roundup® Weather Max at the rate of 32 oz/acre) Ad libitum Until all flies in the vial had died 1 The lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster A significant difference between organic (C2 group) and Roundup® Ready with Roundup® (T1 group) (Cox proportional hazards, risk ratio = 2.706, p = 0.0073), while other comparisons are not (remaining p-values range from 0.146 to 0.869)
   T2: 227 (112/115) Herbicide-tolerant unsprayed (standard medium made with genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant corn (NK603) without Roundup®)     
   C1: 262 (138/124) Non-GMO unsprayed (standard medium made with near-isogenic, NK603 progenitor strain into which the herbicide-tolerant construct had not been inserted)     
   C2: 271 (134/137) Organic commercial (standard medium made with organic commercial corn)      
Tang XQ 2019 [156]** Sprague–Dawley rats T: 48 (24/24) Transgenic rice T2A-1 with cry2A* gene (60.75% during the growth period and 66.75% during the maintenance period, formulated in accordance with AIN-93 diet) Ad libitum 52 weeks 1 Mortality There were no test substance-related deaths, but 1 female in the AIN-93 diet group and 1 male in the GM group were found dead at week 51, showing no obvious adverse symptoms before death and no obvious abnormality in the autopsy
   C: 48 (24/24) Non-transgenic rice of parent ‘Minghui 63’ line (60.75% during the growth period and 66.75% during the maintenance period, formulated in accordance with AIN-93 diet)     
   R: 48 (24/24) AIN-93 diet     
Zhu H 2014 [193]** Sprague–Dawley rats T1: 20 T1: 9.41% of Bt-799 maize (formulated in accordance with AIN-93G purified diets, similarly hereinafter) Ad libitum 13 weeks 1 Mortality One rat in the T1 group died at the 11th week after the feeding, and no abnormalities or morphological changes were found by anatomic and pathological examination
   T2: 20 T2: 28. 23% of Bt-799 maize     
   T3: 20 T3: 84.68% of Bt-799 maize     
   C: 20 C: 84.68% of Zheng-58 maize     
   R: 20 R: AIN-93G purified diets     
  1. aT/C/R refers to treatment group/control group/reference group
  2. F0 refers to parental generation
  3. F1–F4 refers to the generation of the filial generation
  4. Bw refers to body weight
  5. ** refers to a serious adverse event