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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies on the safety of GM food

From: Evaluation of adverse effects/events of genetically modified food consumption: a systematic review of animal and human studies

  Frequency (number of studies) Proportion (%)
Types of animals 203  
Rat/mouse 160 78.82 a
Pig 13 6.40 a
Chick 10 4.93 a
Atlantic salmon 3 1.48 a
Drosophila melanogaster 3 1.48 a
Rabbit 3 1.48 a
Fish 3 1.48 a
Goat 2 0.99 a
Cat 1 0.49 a
Cynomolgus macaque 1 0.49 a
Frog 1 0.49 a
Monkey 1 0.49 a
Sheep 1 0.49 a
Tilapia 1 0.49 a
Types of intervention/exposure 205 e  
GM plant food/feed 160 78.05 a
Corn/maize 52 32.50 b
Rice/brown rice/paddy rice 42 26.25 b
Soybean/soybean meal 33 20.63 b
Tomato 7 4.38 b
Plant-derived protein 6 3.75
Papaya 5 3.13 b
Canola 3 1.88 b
Cottonseed 2 1.25 b
Mixed soy and corn 1 0.63 b
Alfalfa 1 0.63 b
Chilli 1 0.63 b
European black poplar Leaves 1 0.63 b
Poplar leaf 1 0.63 b
Potato 1 0.63 b
Seed oil from Camelina sativa 1 0.63 b
Soybean oil 1 0.63 b
Sweet pepper 1 0.63 b
Wheat 1 0.63 b
GM animal food 32 15.61 a
Milk/milk powder 12 37.50 c
Animal-derived protein 6 18.75 c
Beef/beef powder 4 12.50 c
Carp 4 12.50 c
Goat milk 2 6.25 c
Mutton 2 6.25 c
Pork 2 6.25 c
GM microorganism food 13 6.34 a
Food enzyme endo-1,4-b-xylanase 7 53.85 d
Food enzyme α-amylase 2 15.38 d
Food enzyme glucose oxidase 1 7.69 d
Food enzyme pullulanase 1 7.69 d
Food enzyme aqualysin 1 1 7.69 d
Microorganism-derived protein 1 7.69 d
  1. aPercentage of the eligible studies
  2. bPercentage of studies on GM plant food
  3. cPercentage of studies on GM animal food
  4. dPercentage of studies on GM microorganism food
  5. eThere was one study involving two kinds of GM food