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Table 1 Indicators used in this study

From: Terrestrial ecological restoration in China: identifying advances and gaps

Indicators Classifications References Related database Accessed by
Ecosystem types Forest, shrubland, grassland, farmland, desert, artificial ecosystem, coastal ecosystem Ecosystem type classification in 2010, Chinese Academy of Science Resource and Environment Science and Data Center http://www.resdc.cn/data.aspx?DATAID=105
Ecological issues Ecological disaster, reduced resource-carrying capacity, desertification, environmental pollution, soil salination, soil erosion, freeze–thaw erosion, invasive species, and urban expansion Ministry of Ecology and Environment and Chinese Academy of Science, 2015 China Ecosystem Assessment and Ecological Security Database http://www.ecosystem.csdb.cn/ecoass/ecoassess_list.jsp?func=wt
Ecosystem functions Water conservation, sand stabilization, soil and water conservation, biodiversity protection, hydrological regulation, carbon sequestration Ministry of Ecology and Environment and Chinese Academy of Science, 2015 Resource and Environment Science and Data Center and China Ecosystem Assessment and Ecological Security Database http://www.ecosystem.csdb.cn/ecogj/tpcclasses_list.jsp?func=395F1E2FD6F0674C50076B29E1A108AB
http://www.mee.gov.cn/gkml/hbb/bgg/201511/W020151126550511267548.pdf
Ecoregions 50 ecoregions based on the ecosystem characteristics, ecosystem services and ecological vulnerabilities Ecoregion Plan in China China Ecosystem Assessment and Ecological Security Database http://www.ecosystem.csdb.cn/ecoass/ecoplanning.jsp
Study objectives Vegetation dynamics induced by restoration activities; carbon sequestrated by vegetation and soil, the influence on phosphorous and nitrogen cycles; soil chemical and physical properties; soil microbials; ecosystem services; ecological restoration management; ecosystem function and structure, and water resource Based on the results of literature review in this study, as well as Gurra et al. 2020 [13]
Study methods Literature review, remote sensing, field sampling, ground-based monitoring, atmospheric and land modeling, and policy analysis Gurra et al., 2020; Wu et al. 2020 [13, 14]
Restorative strategies Natural regeneration, direct seeding, bioremediation, revegetation, afforestation, rehabilitation, habitat conservation, threat mitigation (e.g., pollutant removal and grazing exclusion), and wetland creation Based on the results of literature review, as well as the Gurra et al. 2020 [13]
Reference ecosystem presence or absence Gurra et al. 2020 [13]