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Table 2 Overview of molecular responses with relevance in definition of biomarker of effects of NCs measured in aquatic organisms in (eco)toxicological studies and AOPs including corresponding MIE or KE

From: Approaches, limitations and challenges in development of biomarker-based strategy for impact assessment of neuroactive compounds in the aquatic environment

Biomarkers (Eco)toxicological studies AOPsa
Exposure to NCs Model organism(s) Response References ID Response
Neurotransmitter levels or related neuronal activity
 Acetylcholine (Ach) Wastewater effluent Rutilus rutilus [50] 16, 281, 312
  Diazinon and diazoxon Oreochromis niloticus [51]
 Dopamine Venlafaxine Morone saxatilis × Morone chrysops  =  [52] 112, 170 ↑, ↓
  Municipal effluents Elliptio complanata [53]
  Domestic wastewater aeration lagoons Elliptio complanata [54]
  Dieldrin Micropterus salmoides  =  [55]
  Fluoxetine Carassius auratus [56]
  Diazepam Daphnia magna [57]
 Serotonin Venlafaxine Morone saxatilis × Morone chrysops [52] 97, 98, 195, 203, 204
  Wastewater effluent Rutilus rutilus ↑, =  [50]
  Municipal effluents Elliptio complanata [58]
  Municipal effluents Elliptio complanata [53]
  Domestic wastewater aeration lagoons Elliptio complanata [54]
  Fluoxetine Morone saxatilis × Morone chrysops [59]
  Fluoxetine Carassius auratus [56]
  Fluoxetine Daphnia magna [57]
 GABA Dieldrin Micropterus salmoides [55] 197, 215, 231 ↓, ↑
  Diazepam Daphnia magna [57]   
 Glutamate Wastewater effluent Rutilus rutilus ↑, ↓ [50] 13, 215 ↓, ↑
Neurotransmitter receptors
 Nicotinic Ach receptors No relevant (eco)toxicological studies including these biomarkers 178
 Muscarinic Ach receptors 281
 Serotonin receptors 221, 222, 224, 225, 235, 236 ↓, ↑
 GABA receptors 10, 160, 215, 231 ↓, ↑
 Glutamate receptors 12, 13, 48, 113, 161, 215 ↓, ↑
 α-noradrenergic (NE) receptors 126
 Beta-2 adrenergic receptor 164
 Mu Opioid Receptor 233, 234
Neurotransmitters catabolic enzymes
 Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) Pulp and paper mill effluents Carassius auratus [60] 16, 281, 312
  Sewage effluent Astyanax bimaculatus ↓, =  [61]
  Fluoxetine Pomatoschistus microps [62]
  Organophosphorus
insecticides
Estuarine fish and invertebrates Reviewed by [63]
  Diazepam Hediste diversicolor [64]
  Mixture of pesticides Markiana nigripinnis and Astyanax lacustris ↓, =  [65]
  Municipal wastewaters Abramis brama ↑, =  [66]
  Municipal wastewaters Meretrix meretrix ↑, =  [67]
 Monoaminoxidase (MAO) Caffeine, carbamazepine Corbicula fluminea  =  [68] No AOPs including these biomarkers as MIE/KE
  Wastewater treatment plant effluents Different fish species ↑, ↓ [69]
  Pulp and paper mill effluents Carassius auratus [60]
  Municipal effluents Elliptio complanata [58]
  Domestic wastewater aeration lagoons Elliptio complanata [54]
  Carbamazepine, fluoxetine Hediste diversicolor [70]
 GABA transaminase (GABA-T) Pulp and paper mill effluents Carassius auratus ↑, ↓ [60]
Neurotransmitter transporters
 Dopamine transporters Municipal effluents Elliptio complanata [53] No AOPs including these biomarkers as MIE/KE
  Domestic wastewater aeration lagoons Elliptio complanata [54]
  Fluoxetine Carassius auratus [56]
 Serotonin transporters Municipal effluents Elliptio complanata [53] 97, 98, 195, 203, 204, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226 ↓, ↑
  Domestic wastewater aeration lagoons Elliptio complanata [54]
Voltage-gated ion channels activity
 Sodium channels No relevant (eco)toxicological studies including these biomarkers 94, 96, 197, 215, 230 ↓, ↑
 Potassium channels 95
  1. MIE Molecular Initiating Event, KE Key Event
  2. aThe web addresses and status for each AOP are provided in Additional file 1: Table S1