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Table 1 Neuroactive compounds (NCs), model organisms, tested concentrations and lowest concentrations with the observed effect(s) in examples of laboratory studies providing experimentally derived evidence of adverse effects of NCs in aquatic organisms

From: Approaches, limitations and challenges in development of biomarker-based strategy for impact assessment of neuroactive compounds in the aquatic environment

Neuroactive compound Model organism Tested concentrations (µg/L) Lowest concentration with the observed effect(s) (µg/L) References
Carbamazepine Danio rerio 1, 2 and 5 1 [27]
Oxazepam Lota lota 1 and 100 1 [28]
d-Amphetamine Danio rerio 13,5–2704 13,5 [29]
Cocaine Danio rerio 68–17,000 2000
Cocaine Danio rerio 1000–20,000 5000 [30]
Cocaine Danio rerio 5–51,000 510a [31]
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) Danio rerio 250–120,000 40,000 [32]
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Danio rerio 300–5000 600
(LC50 = 3 650)
[33]
Cannabidiol (CBD) Danio rerio 70–1250 70
(LC50 = 530)
Ethoprophos Astyanax aeneus 14 14 [36]
  1. aConcentration with the most consistent efficacy; LC50—median lethal concentration