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Table 6 Factors included in the PECsoil initial calculation and their relationship with the result (positive correlation, negative correlation, constant factor, and factor neglected in the respective equation), the summarized trends in animal husbandry, and the expected effect on PECsoil initial

From: Critical discussion of the current environmental risk assessment (ERA) of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) in the European Union, considering changes in animal husbandry

Factors Equations for PECsoil initial calculation, according to EMA [22] and as shown in Additional file 1: Table S1a Changes in animal husbandry in the last decade Expected effect on PECsoil initialb
  Intensively reared animals Pasture animals Dairy cattle teat dips or sprays   
Numerator      
Daily dose of the active ingredient (a.i.) / / Low dosec
Number of days of treatment / / One shotc
Average body weight / Increased for some animal types
Maximum body weight / Increased for some animal types
Animal turnover rate per place per year / Decreases or remains constant
Stocking density / Decreases or remains constant
EU nitrogen spreading limit ° Remains constant °
Fraction of herd treatment / / Decreases for many product groups
Volume of dip used each milking / Decreases or disappears completely (antibiotics), while other remain constantd
Number of milkings per day / Increases slightlye
Number of days a dairy cow is in lactation ° Remains constant °
Concentration of the a.i. in the product / No or unknown evidence for changes °
Fraction of dip entering dirty water / Remains constant °
Denominator      
Bulk density of dry soil ° ° ° Remains constant °
Depth of penetration into soil ° ° ° Remains constant °
N produced per year per place \ Increased for some animal types
Housing factor \ Remains constant °
Spreading rate for dirty water ° Remains constant °
Volume of water used to wash the milking parlor ° Remains constant °
  1. a/, Positive correlation; \, negative correlation; °, constant factor; –, factor neglected in the respective equation
  2. b↑, Increase; ↓, decrease; °, constant
  3. cData indicating these changes [147,148,149]
  4. dData indicating these changes [150, 151]
  5. eData indicating these changes [152, 153]