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Table 5 Suggestion for updating the original VMP guideline Tables 4 and 5 [22] containing default values for pasture animals

From: Critical discussion of the current environmental risk assessment (ERA) of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) in the European Union, considering changes in animal husbandry

Animal type Stocking density (animals ha−1) Maximum body weight (kgbw) Daily dung production (kgwwt d−1) Daily dung production
(kg dry matter d−1)c
Dairy cow 3.5 800 36 9
Beef cattle 9.5 330 13 3.25
Laying hen 230a 2.5 0.07b 0.008–0.020
Pony 5 250 10 2.5
Horse 3 600 25 6.25
Sheep (adult ewe) 15 80 2 0.6
Lamb 25 36 0.9 0.27
Goat 15 60 1.6 0.48
Red deer (stag) 15 110 2.8 n.a
  1. aEcologically housed laying hens [143]. Maximal 170 kg nitrogen produced per year and hectare, which corresponds to 230 laying hens per hectare
  2. bData were taken from [144]
  3. cData were taken from [145]