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Table 2 Evaluation of bias for the studies in the systematic review

From: Methodological limitations in studies assessing the effects of environmental and socioeconomic variables on the spread of COVID-19: a systematic review

Manuscript Confounding bias Control of the population Control of the spatial and/or temporal dependence Control of non-linearities Measurement errors Statistical model Overall rating
Aabed 3 2 3 1 3 1 3
Adekunle 3 3 1 1 2 3 3
Adhikari 2 3 2 3 2 1 2
Ahmadi 1 2 3 3 3 3 3
Azar 1 2 3 NA 2 1 1
Azuma 1 1 2 3 3 3 3
Behnood 3 2 3 1 3 3 3
Briz-Redón 1 1 1 1 3 3 2
Byass 3 1 3 3 3 1 3
Carleton 3 1 2 1 3 3 3
Chadeau-Hyam 1 3 2 3 2 1 2
Chakrabarty 3 3 3 1 3 1 3
Chakraborty 1 1 3 2 3 1 2
Chaudhry 1 2 3 NA 3 1 2
Chien 1 1 1 1 3 1 1
Coccia a 3 2 3 3 3 3 3
Coccia b 1 2 3 3 2 3 3
Coker 1 1 2 3 1 1 1
Das a 3 1 3 NA 3 1 3
Das b 1 3 3 NA 3 1 3
Demongeot 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
DiMaggio 1 1 1 NA 2 1 1
Dogan 3 3 3 3 2 3 3
Drefahl 1 3 3 NA 2 1 2
Falcão Sobral 2 2 3 3 3 3 3
Fattorini 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Fazzini 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Fiasca 3 2 3 3 3 3 3
Filippini 1 1 3 1 3 3 3
Fu 2 2 2 3 2 1 2
Guasp 2 2 3 3 3 3 3
Guo C 1 1 3 1 2 1 1
Guo XJ 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Gupta 3 3 NA 3 3 3 3
Han 1 3 1 3 2 3 3
He 3 3 1 1 3 1 3
Hoang a 2 3 3 1 3 3 3
Hoang b 2 3 3 1 1 3 3
Hutter 2 2 3 3 3 1 3
Iqbal MM 3 3 NA 3 3 3 3
Iqbal N 2 3 3 1 3 3 3
Isaia 1 1 3 3 3 3 3
Islam ART 3 3 3 1 2 1 3
Islam N 2 1 3 2 3 1 2
Jamshidi 1 2 3 3 3 3 3
Jiang 3 3 3 3 3 1 3
Jüni 1 2 NA 3 2 2 1
Kaiser 1 2 NA NA 3 3 2
Khan 3 1 3 1 3 3 3
Kodera 3 2 3 3 3 3 3
Kubota 1 1 2 3 3 3 3
Lamb 1 2 2 NA 3 3 2
Lau 2 3 3 NA 2 3 3
Lhada 2 3 3 3 3 3 3
Li AY 1 2 3 3 3 3 3
Li H 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Li X 2 3 3 NA 2 3 3
Liang 1 1 1 3 2 1 1
Lin 2 2 3 3 3 3 3
Liu 2 3 2 1 2 1 1
López-Feldman 1 1 3 3 2 1 2
Luo 1 1 3 1 3 2 2
Ma 3 1 2 1 3 1 2
Madhav 1 1 3 NA 2 1 1
Malki 3 3 3 1 3 3 3
Mandal 3 1 NA 3 3 3 3
Marciel de Souza 3 1 1 NA 3 1 2
Martorell-Marugan 3 1 3 3 3 3 3
Medeiros-Figuereido 1 2 3 3 3 3 3
Meo 1 3 NA 3 3 3 3
Meraj 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Meyer 1 1 1 3 2 1 1
Muñoz-Cacho 3 2 3 3 3 3 3
Notari 3 3 1 1 3 3 3
Ozyigit 1 3 3 3 3 3 3
Paez 2 2 2 3 3 3 3
Pan 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Pequeno 1 2 3 3 2 1 2
Perone 1 1 3 3 3 3 3
Pirouz 2 3 3 3 2 3 3
Plümper 2 2 2 NA 2 3 1
Poirier 2 3 3 3 3 3 3
Pozzer NA 2 NA 1 1 1 1
Pramanik a 3 3 3 1 3 3 3
Pramanik b 3 3 3 1 3 3 3
Prata 2 1 1 1 3 1 1
Price-Haywood 1 2 3 NA 2 1 1
Qi 2 1 3 1 3 1 2
Rafael 3 2 3 NA 2 3 3
Rahman 1 1 3 3 3 3 3
Rashed 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Rehman 1 1 3 3 3 1 3
Richmond 1 1 3 NA 2 3 2
Rodríguez-Villamizar 1 1 2 3 3 1 2
Rozenfeld 1 3 3 NA 2 1 2
Rubin 1 3 3 1 2 1 2
Runkle 1 2 2 3 3 1 2
Saez 1 1 1 1 2 1 1
Sajadi 1 3 NA 3 3 3 3
Sánchez-Lorenzo 3 3 NA 3 3 3 3
Sannigrahi 1 2 3 NA 2 3 2
Sarkodie 1 3 1 3 2 3 3
Scarpone 1 1 1 1 2 3 1
Sehra 1 1 3 3 3 1 3
Shahzad F 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Shahzad K 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Shao 2 3 NA 3 3 1 3
Shi 3 1 2 1 2 1 1
Stieb 1 1 2 3 3 1 2
Su 1 3 NA 3 3 3 3
Sun 1 1 1 3 3 3 3
Tagaki a 2 1 3 3 3 3 3
Tagaki b 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
To 3 1 2 3 3 3 3
Tobías 2 1 2 3 2 1 1
Tzampoglou 1 1 3 3 3 3 3
Ujiie 1 1 3 3 3 1 3
Wang Q 1 1 2 1 3 1 1
Wang Y 3 3 3 1 3 3 3
Ward a 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
Ward b 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
Wu X 1 1 2 1 2 1 1
Wu Y 2 2 NA 1 3 3 2
Xie J 2 1 2 1 2 1 1
Xie Z 1 3 1 3 3 3 3
Xu 3 1 2 3 2 1 2
Yao a 1 3 3 3 3 2 3
Yao b 1 3 3 3 2 3 3
You 1 2 1 NA 3 3 2
Zakeri 1 2 3 NA 2 1 1
Zhang 2 3 3 1 3 3 3
Zhu L 3 3 2 1 2 3 3
Zhu Y 3 3 NA 3 3 2 3
Dimensions Overall
 Number of 3 s 47 53 80 73 90 77 85
 Number of 2 s 26 32 23 2 40 4 26
 Number of 1 s 60 48 30 58 3 52 22
  1. Bold: Strong (rate 1); Italic: Moderate (rate 2); Bolditalic: Weak (rate 3)