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Table 1 A comparison of non-biodegradable tetracycline methods

From: Environmental fate of tetracycline antibiotics: degradation pathway mechanisms, challenges, and perspectives

Non-biodegradable method Advantages Disadvantages Influencing parameters
Ozonation High process efficiency
Lesser O3 consumption
Environmentally safe, i.e., no sludge production
Improve efficiency by catalyst utilization
High cost
Lesser solubility in water
Possible production of carcinogenic by-product (bromate)
Mass transfer limitation
Ozone dose
pH and temperature of the reaction medium
Type of catalyst
Initial TC concentration
Fenton process High performance
Environmentally safe end products generation, i.e., H2O, O2
Possibility of catalyst utilization to improve the efficiency
Possibility of combination with other non-biodegradable methods to improve efficiency
Strict pH range
High H2O2 consumption
Ferric sludge generation
Operating pH and temperature
Ferrous ion concentration
H2O2 concentration
Initial TC concentration
Photolysis/photocatalysis Reaction conditions easily met
Complete decomposition of organic matter
Strong redox ability
Low cost
Long durability
No adsorption saturation
Potential upscale possibility
Inefficient visible light utilization
Rapid degradation of photogenerated intermediate compounds
Mass transfer limitations
Incomplete mineralization
Intensity of radiation
Type of catalysts
Water hardness
Redox conditions
Initial TC concentration
Humic acid concentration
Sonolysis/sonochemical oxidation Green or safe technique
No or negligible secondary pollution
Ultrasound waves clean catalyst surface thereby increasing catalyst efficiency
Low cost reactors
In combination with Fenton process reduce sludge generation
Non-selective mechanism
High energy consumption
High maintenance cost
Ultrasonic power
Initial TC concentration
Reaction time
Redox potential
  1. The data for comparison are taken from the references [27, 32,33,34,35,36]