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Table 2 Historical perspective

From: Toxicant-induced loss of tolerance for chemicals, foods, and drugs: assessing patterns of exposure behind a global phenomenon

  Germ theory Immune theory TILT theory
Awareness began  ~ 160 years ago  ~ 85 years ago  ~ 30 years ago
Hallmark symptom Fever Anaphylaxis New-onset intolerances to structurally diverse chemicals, foods, and drugs
Causative agents Bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, etc. Naturally occurring proteins Acute or chronic chemical exposures, e.g., sick building, pesticides
How long have we been living with this? Co-evolved with humans Co-evolved with humans Evolutionarily novel
Principal treatment Antibiotics, vaccines Antihistamines, steroids, immunotherapy Unknown
Susceptibility factors General health, genetics, developmental stage General health, genetics, developmental stage General health, genetics, developmental stage
Prevention Avoidance of sources Avoidance of sources Avoidance of sources