Skip to main content

Table 4 Biomarkers (acetylcholine esterase AChE, glutathione S-transferase GST) in earthworms in response to weed control types (WCT: glyphosate-based herbicides GBHs, active ingredients AIs, hand weeding as control) at different soil organic matter (SOM) levels (low 3.0%, high 4.1%)

From: Effects of glyphosate-based herbicides and their active ingredients on earthworms, water infiltration and glyphosate leaching are influenced by soil properties

Weed control type SOM level AChE activity
µMol min−1 mg−1
GST activity
µMol min−1 mg−1
GBH Low 523.54 ± 98.48 463.27 ± 115.13
AI 565.59 ± 95.99 469.79 ± 69.67
Control   603.37 ± 159.65 446.99 ± 74.24
GBH High 521.79 ± 127.42 366.87 ± 105.26
AI 463.18 ± 86.69 396.90 ± 127.49
Control   499.76 ± 9.09 398.99 ± 50.48
ANOVA results    
Factors AChE activity GST activity
Df F value Pr (> F) Df F value Pr (> F)
Weed control type 2 0.385 0.683 2 0.152 0.860
SOM 1 3.071 0.088 1 6.209 0.017
WCT × SOM 2 1.115 0.339 2 0.132 0.877
Residuals 36    36   
  1. Means ± SD, n = 15 for GBH and AI; n = 5 for control. Significant results in bold. No multiple comparisons were made because of lacking main effects