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Table 2 Pre-treatment period: earthworm activity in pots that were assigned to weed control type (WCT: glyphosate-based herbicides, active ingredients, or hand weeding as control) at two soil organic matter levels (SOM)

From: Effects of glyphosate-based herbicides and their active ingredients on earthworms, water infiltration and glyphosate leaching are influenced by soil properties

Factors Mean cast numbers
(no. pot−1)
Mean cast mass
(g pot−1)
Mean surface activity
(toothpick index)
Df LR Χ2 Pr (> Χ2) Df F value Pr (> F) Df LR Χ2 Pr (> Χ2)
Weed control type 2 1.021 0.600 2 1.429 0.241 2 0.264 0.876
SOM 1 0.138 0.710 1 0.089 0.766 1 0.357 0.550
Covar. time 1 0.215 0.643 1 24.727  < 0.001 1 7.690 0.006
Covar. soil moist. (%) 1 0.092 0.761 1 0.953 0.330 1 0.213 0.644
Covar. soil temp. (°C) 1 17.163  < 0.001 1 25.075  < 0.001 1 0.688 0.407
Covar soil cond. (mS m−1) 1 0.198 0.657 1 0.649 0.421 1 0.592 0.442
WCT x SOM 2 0.092 0.955 2 0.311 0.733 2 0.133 0.936
Residuals NA    261    NA   
  1. GLMs/analysis of deviance was used for cast numbers and surface activity, LM/ANOVA for cast mass; time period (4 weeks), soil moisture, temperature and electrical conductivity was used as covariates. Significant treatment effects are indicated in bold. NA not applicable. No multiple comparisons were made because of lacking main effects