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Table 2 Compact summary of Catchment I

From: Natural attenuation along subsurface flow paths based on modeling and monitoring of a pesticide metabolite from three case studies

Crops and use history
Treated crops Stone and pome fruits, strawberries currants
Application 1993–2006; application in late spring and summer, BBCH growth stages > 60
Observation
 Leachate sampling Collected at 21 sites, distributed across the orchard in 2008, 2010, 2011
 Position of monitoring wells Below orchard Middle downstream Close to the raw water abstraction Raw water abstraction gallery
 Distance of treated area to downstream monitoring wells [m] –-  ~ 1600  ~ 2200  ~ 2800
Geology/lithology
 Leaching profile Holocene loam (Cambisol) from relict high flood alluvium covering Pleistocene sands
 Aquifer Quaternary fluviatile sand and gravel terraces
 Basement Tertiary fine sediment layers composed of sand and clay of marine origin
 Location Western Germany, Rhine-Ruhr region
 Topography Rhine plain (east of the river) with slope < 1°, agricultural land use
Aquifer properties
 Groundwater level below treated orchard [m] 4.5–6.5
 Thickness [m] 1–25
 Slope of aquifer [m]/[m] 5/2800
 Hydraulic conductivity [m/d] 40 (upper 10 m);
300 (lower 5 m)
 Dispersivity (longitudinal/vertical) [m]; [m] 10; 0.1
Used models
 Leaching modeling PEARL
 Aquifer transport modeling HYDRUS-2D