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Table 4 Previous studies using artificial mussels (AMs) in marine and freshwater ecosystems

From: Laboratory and field studies on the use of artificial mussels as a monitoring tool of platinum exposure in the freshwater environment

Study area

Elements monitored

Bioindicator organism (BO)

Exposure period




 Marine environments (developed)


Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn

Perna viridis

8 weeks

Laboratory patterns are similar while field patterns were differential

BO accumulated higher concentrations in the laboratory, in the field the AMs showed higher Cd, Cr and Pb, while Zn higher in BO

 Scotland and Iceland


Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn

Mytilus edulis

94 days

Differential patterns

BO contained significantly higher concentrations

 South African coastline


Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn


6 weeks

Differential patterns

Differential concentrations

 Portuguese Coast


Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn

Mytilus galloprovincialis

4 months

Similar patterns at different sites between different months sampled

Zn higher in BO, Pb higher in AM

 China coastline


Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn

Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis

30 days and 90 days

Similar patterns

M. edulis showed correlations for Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb. P. viridis showed correlations for Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn

 Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh

[15, 16]

Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, U and Zn

Only AMs were used

4 weeks



 Estero de Urias Lagoon, Gulf of California [17]

Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, and Zn

Crassostrea palmula and Mytella strigata

6 months

Differential patterns

Concentrations of Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni and Co in AMs were consistently lower than in the BO, Hg and U were only detectable in AMs

 Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia


As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn

Mytilus galloprovincialis

4 weeks

Similar patterns for Pb, Cu and Cr

Significant correlation between Cr, Cu and Pb, lower correlations with As, Hg and Zn


 Goulburn–Murray catchment, Victoria, Australia [8]

Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn

Only AMs were used

4 weeks



 Koekemoer Spruit, South Africa [6]

As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, U, V and Zn

Melanoides tuberculata

30 days

Differential patterns

Most of the concentrations were similar, only Cd, Mn and Pb showed significant differences

 Nyl River floodplain, South Africa [10]

Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn

Spot water samples

4 weeks

Differential patterns

Differential concentrations

 Sarıçay Stream, Turkey


Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, and Zn

Unio crassus

4 weeks

Differential patterns

Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations higher in BO

 Hex River System, South Africa [12]

As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Pt, V, and Zn

Corbicula fluminalis africana

6 weeks

Differential patterns

Significantly higher Cr, Co, Cd and Zn concentrations in BO, AM accumulated Pt