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Table 4 Previous studies using artificial mussels (AMs) in marine and freshwater ecosystems

From: Laboratory and field studies on the use of artificial mussels as a monitoring tool of platinum exposure in the freshwater environment

Study area Elements monitored Bioindicator organism (BO) Exposure period Patterns Concentrations
 Marine environments (developed)
Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn Perna viridis 8 weeks Laboratory patterns are similar while field patterns were differential BO accumulated higher concentrations in the laboratory, in the field the AMs showed higher Cd, Cr and Pb, while Zn higher in BO
 Scotland and Iceland
Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn Mytilus edulis 94 days Differential patterns BO contained significantly higher concentrations
 South African coastline
Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn Perna 6 weeks Differential patterns Differential concentrations
 Portuguese Coast
Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn Mytilus galloprovincialis 4 months Similar patterns at different sites between different months sampled Zn higher in BO, Pb higher in AM
 China coastline
Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis 30 days and 90 days Similar patterns M. edulis showed correlations for Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb. P. viridis showed correlations for Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn
 Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh
[15, 16]
Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, U and Zn Only AMs were used 4 weeks - -
 Estero de Urias Lagoon, Gulf of California [17] Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, and Zn Crassostrea palmula and Mytella strigata 6 months Differential patterns Concentrations of Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni and Co in AMs were consistently lower than in the BO, Hg and U were only detectable in AMs
 Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia
As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn Mytilus galloprovincialis 4 weeks Similar patterns for Pb, Cu and Cr Significant correlation between Cr, Cu and Pb, lower correlations with As, Hg and Zn
 Goulburn–Murray catchment, Victoria, Australia [8] Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn Only AMs were used 4 weeks - -
 Koekemoer Spruit, South Africa [6] As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, U, V and Zn Melanoides tuberculata 30 days Differential patterns Most of the concentrations were similar, only Cd, Mn and Pb showed significant differences
 Nyl River floodplain, South Africa [10] Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn Spot water samples 4 weeks Differential patterns Differential concentrations
 Sarıçay Stream, Turkey
Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, and Zn Unio crassus 4 weeks Differential patterns Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations higher in BO
 Hex River System, South Africa [12] As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Pt, V, and Zn Corbicula fluminalis africana 6 weeks Differential patterns Significantly higher Cr, Co, Cd and Zn concentrations in BO, AM accumulated Pt