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Table 2 The negative Log-likelihood values (LL), and parameters derived from fitting mobility of daphnids exposed to individual alkaloids and an alkaloid plant extract daily over 96 h to a GUTS-RED-IT model are given together with derived EC50 values asfter 48 h (standard timeframe for toxicity on D. magna) and 96 h

From: Toxicity and risk of plant-produced alkaloids to Daphnia magna

  LL kD_IT/d mw_IT mg/L β 48 h EC50 mg/L 96 h EC50 mg/L
Gramine 106.6 0.411 (0.090–0.721) 3.37 (1.13–4.49) 3.07 (2.11–5.70) 6.03 (5.18–7.49) 4.19 (3.41–4.95)
Heliotrine   NA NA NA > 100 > 100
Lupanine 80 0.0016 (0.0016a–0.173) 0.419 (0.322–33.7) 4.89 (3.02–10.0) 128 (96–185) 64 (48–93)
Lupinine 27.9 0.698 (0.002a–1.46) 117 (0.92–160a) 5.10 (2.36–20a) 156 (95–703) 125 (82–394)
Monocrotaline 37.9 0.421 (0.158–0.776) 22.4 (11.0–32.0) 2.26 (1.74–3.49) 39.4 (32.7–47.1) 27.5 (21.9–34.7)
Monocrotaline N-oxide 3.97 0.613 (0.42–6.11) 44.0 (4.05–96.8) 1.05 (1.05a–2.28) 62.2 (40.1–96.7) 48.1 (25.8–96.7)
Senecionine 26.3 0.969 (0.501–1.64) 45.8 (31.6–62.7) 2.85 (2.03–5.15) 53.6 (41.6–68.9) 46.8 (34.7–63.7)
Sparteine 77.3 0.0016 (0.0016a–0.205) 0.0937 (0.0632–9.77) 5.57 (3.12–20a) 28.6 (18.8–40.9) 14.3 (9.4–20.7)
Plant extract 145 0.0016 (0.0016a–0.137) 0.0056 (0.0043–0.421) 3.91 (2.63–7.01) 1.72 (1.30–2.14) 0.86 (0.65–1.09)
  1. All values are given with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). NA indicates non-achievable data
  2. aEdge of 95% parameter CI has run into a boundary