Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of the properties of the selected alkaloids based on experimental data or QSAR predictions obtained from the Danish QSAR Database (http://qsar.food.dtu.dk/)

From: Toxicity and risk of plant-produced alkaloids to Daphnia magna

  Gramine Sparteine Lupinine Lupanine Heliotrine Senecionine Monocrotaline Monocrotaline N-oxide
Type of Alkaloid Indole Quinolizidine Quinolizidine Quinolizidine Pyrrolizidine Pyrrolizidine Pyrrolizidine Pyrrolizidine
Structure
Molecular Formula C11H14N2 C15H26N2 C10H19NO C15H24N2O C16H27NO5 C18H25NO5 C16H23NO6 C16H23NO7
Molecular Weight (g/mol) 174.25 234.39 169.27 248.37 313.4 335.4 325.36 341.36
Boiling Point (oC) 312.39 325a 270.93 374.71 394.8 503.9 502.87 Monocrotaline N-oxide not in QSAR database
Water Solubility (mg/L) 34,400 3,040 at 22oCb 2.512e + 004 at 25 °C 831.5 46,350 165,300 901,900
pKa 8.7 (Base) n/a (Acid) 12 (Base) n/a (Acid) 9.4 (Base) 15.3 (Acid) 9.4 (Base) n/a (Acid) 9.2 (Base) 14.1 (Acid) 7.8 (Base) 12.4 (Acid) 7.8 (Base) 11.2 (Acid)
LogKow 1.45 2.73 1.64 1.71 0.41 -0.39 − 1.18
LogKoc (MCI method) 3.2306 3.71 1.727 3.1097 0.5358 1.9616 0.2883
LogKoc (Kow method) 1.6618 2.304 1.355 1.7582 0.1074 0.1014 − 0.747
Bioconcentration Factor (L/kg wet-wt) 4.218 29.3 5.609 6.271 3.162 3.162 3.162
Level III Fugacity Environmental Partitioning t1/2 Air 2.03 h 3.69 h 3.69 h 0.926 h 0.444 h 0.406 h 0.489 h
Water 60 d 37.5 d 37.5 d 37.5 d 37.5 d 37.5 d 60 d
Soil 120 d 75 d 75 d 75 d 75 d 75 d 120 d
Sediment 541.7 d 337.5 d 337.5 d 337.5 d 337.5 d 337.5 d 541.7 d
Leadscope D. magna 48 h EC50 (mg/L) 5.046 3.148 13.045 3.476 254,148 3.218 9.735  
  1. aPhysProp. b Dannenfelser and Yalkowsky [8].